Introduction to International Conflict Resolution

Introduction to International Conflict

 Resolution   PS 250-32306

Spring 2009

Montgomery College
Department of History & Political Science

Class Meets: Mondays 6:30-9:10 pm

Location: TC 215 Rockville Campus

William Primosch, MA
Office: HU 016
Office Hours: Mondays 5:30-6:25 pm or by appointment

william.primosch@montgomerycollege.edu

Tel: (301) 493-9532

 

 

Course Description

 

The course provides an introduction to the design, management, theory and analysis of international conflict. It explores the nature of international conflict and the combination of psychological, social, anthropological, political, legal and other strategies (including diplomatic, economic, military and institution-building) that can be used to resolve such conflict.

 

Assessment levels: EN 101/101A, RD 120. 3 semester hours

 

Course Objectives:

 

Upon completion of the course, students will:

 

  • Understand the broad historical evolution of international conflict resolution
  • Identify the different kinds of international conflict today and their causes
  • Become acquainted with a variety of tools that are used to resolve conflicts, including diplomacy, mediation, multilateral efforts, economic incentives & disincentives, peacekeeping missions, military action & institution-building
  • Gain insights into successful and unsuccessful conflict resolution through the study of actual cases, both historical and on-going conflicts
  • Develop an analytical framework for critically examining conflicts and possible solutions
  • Enhance their oral and written communications skills

 

 

COURSE REQUIREMENTS:
1.   Mini-Quizzes on Readings (50% of final grade or approximately 4% for each)

2.   Final Exam (25%)      
3.   Course Paper/Oral Presentation (20%)

4.   Class Participation (5% with possibility of 5 bonus points)

MINI-QUIZZES: There will be 13 pre-discussion mini-quizzes covering the readings on

January 26-May 4. To obtain credit for the mini-quiz, you must submit to me before each class  a short written review identifying four key points in your readings for that class (i.e., at least  two-three complete sentences on each key point).  If there is more than one reading, the mini-quiz should identify at least one key point in each reading.  Late submissions will be penalized.  You should submit your mini-quiz on time even if you are unable to attend class.  All mini-quizzes must be typed in hard copy or sent by email. Please be sure to include you name, the assignment date and the reading topic(s) on each mini-quiz.

 

FINAL EXAMINATION: The final exam on May 11 may include multiple choice questions, short Identification answers, and short and medium-length essay questions. It will also include an extra credit question on which you can demonstrate your knowledge of the internal country conflict or international conflict that you have selected to examine in the course.

 

ORAL PRESENTATION OR ESSAY REQUIREMENT: Students will have the option of either requesting to make an oral presentation on a particular conflict or writing an analytical paper.  Five students will have the option, on a first-come first-serve basis, of participating in an oral presentation on a particular conflict. Note that 20 percent of the grade on your report will depend whether you use correct spelling, punctuation, sentence structure and word usage.

 

·         The oral presentation will involve a 40-minute report to the class accompanied by a PowerPoint presentation and a 20-minute period for answering questions from me and your classmates.  Students making the oral presentation will also be required to submit a      1 ˝-2 page double-spaced summary of “lessons learned” and a bibliography of sources used in their presentation.  Oral presentations will be scheduled on consecutive classes from April 6 through May 4 and must be given on the assigned date. 

·         Other students will be required to submit a 5-page double-spaced paper on a specific international conflict and a list of sources. At least one full page of your paper should include a discussion of “lessons learned.” The papers are due on April 27. Late submissions will be penalized. Additional information on the oral and written requirements is attached. Note that Wikipedia is not an acceptable source for your bibliography although it may be helpful in providing general background on your topic and specific factual information (e.g., names, dates, etc.).

 

All students should select their oral presentation or essay topic and clear it with me no later than March 2.

 

ATTENDANCE AND CLASS PARTICIPATION 

 

Your attendance is expected at every class. More than one unexcused absence will result in a reduction in your numerical grade. Class participation is an important part of the learning process. The grade for class participation will be based on your active involvement in class discussions and your ability to demonstrate that you have read and reflected on the required readings. Students who consistently participate in class discussions and demonstrate knowledge of the readings will be eligible for up to 5 bonus points on their final course grade.

 

Grading Scale:     A = 90-100      B =   80-89     C = 70-79     D =   60-69     F < 60   

Textbooks:

Contemporary Conflict Resolution, Oliver Ramsbotham, Tom Woodhouse and Hugh Miall, Polity Press, Malden, Massachusetts, 2005 (reprinted 2006 & 2007), paperback edition

 

Other Required Reading: In addition to readings from the textbook, students will be assigned articles from other publications that relate to specific subjects of interest.  I will provide copies of the articles before the assigned date for reading.

 

Daily Newspaper:  Students are encouraged to read daily the international sections of the New York Times, Financial Times or Washington Post, with a focus on articles related to course subjects and your research topics. Class discussions will draw from current events.

 

 

STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Any students with disabilities or any other special needs that are authorized special accommodations should make an appointment to discuss them with me as soon as possible. Please note that you must see the Disability Support Services (Room CB 122) to receive authorization for special accommodations.

VETERANS AND MILITARY

If you are a veteran or on active or reserve status and are interested in information regarding opportunities, programs and/or services, please visit the Combat2College website at www.montgomerycollege.edu/combat2colleg/ and/or contact a Veterans Club faculty sponsor on your campus.

 

 

COMMUNICATION WITH STUDENTS VIA MC INTERNET SYSTEM

 

I will communicate with all students in the class via the Montgomery College email system and also the course website.  Please check your Montgomery College emails regularly so that you can be informed of any changes in readings, new activities and other important course announcements.  I will post all of my PowerPoint presentations on the course website.  If you do not know how to access your Montgomery College emails or the course website, see me immediately after the first class.

 

COURSE WEBSITE

 

We will use the course website, accessed on MyMC, to post class announcements, study materials (e.g., PowerPoint presentations), course articles and other information of interest.  To access the website:

 

  • Log on to the college website www.montgomerycollege.edu
  • Click on “MY MC LOGIN” at the top of the page
  • Enter your ‘MY MC ID” and password
  • Click on the “My Course” tab at the top of the page
  • Under Spring 2009, click on the International Conflict Resolution link
  • Announcements will be posted on the main page
  • To access other documents, click “Files” on the left hand column

 

GROUND RULES FOR EXAMS, PAPERS, ORAL PRESENTATIONS AND CHEATING/PLAGIARISM:

1.    Course papers that are turned in past the deadline will be penalized with a substantial reduction in grade unless there is a compelling reason.  All oral presentations must be given on the assigned date.

 2.    With respect to exams, there will be no make-up unless there is a legitimate excuse for having missed an exam.

3.   
Neither cheating nor plagiarism will be tolerated.  The penalty for cheating is a failing grade for the course. Plagiarism includes copying word-for-word text from other sources to use in your paper and submitting the writing of others as your own.  Plagiarism, which most instructors can easily detect, will result in an automatic failing grade for the assignment.

 


Weekly Topics and Reading

 

Week 1– Jan. 26 

 

Review of Course Requirements, Format and Grading

 

Segment 1—Introduction to Conflict Resolution Studies and Basic Concepts

Key issues for discussion:  Evolution of international conflict resolution studies in the 20th century, with focus shifting from interstate conflicts to ethnic and civil conflicts within states; goals of “conflict resolution” studies; assumptions and biases of conflict resolution studies; innovations in theoretical tools, including game theory, graduated reciprocation in tension reduction (GRIT) theory, psycho-social analysis and peace movements; overview of contemporary conflict resolution theory, including mediation tools and stages of conflict resolution; and discussion of basic concepts in conflict resolution theory and strategies.

Reading: Chapter 1 “Introduction to Conflict Resolution: Concepts and Definitions” in Contemporary Conflict Resolution, Ramsbotham et al., p. 3-31; and “The Conflict Resolution Field” in Peacemaking in International Conflict: Methods & Techniques, editor, I. William Zartman, p. 34-40 (To be provided)

 

Week 2 – Feb. 2 

Segment 2--The Historical Evolution of International Conflict and Current Trends

Key issues for discussion: How international conflict evolved over the 20th century; the impact of U.S. and Soviet dominance during the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991; and the growing problem of internal ethnic and civil conflict in international relations and reduction (but not elimination) of interstate conflict.

Reading: Chapter 3 “Statistics of Deadly Quarrels,” p. 55-75 and Chapter 4 “Understanding Contemporary Conflict” (section on “An Interpretative Framework for Conflict Analysis”), p. 96-104 in Contemporary Conflict Resolution, Oliver Ramsbotham et al.

 

Week 3- Feb. 9              

Segment 3--Strategies for Preventing Conflict

Key issues for discussion:  Domestic and international structural causes of conflict; preventive diplomacy and pre-conflict mediation

Reading: Chapter 5 “Preventing Violent Conflict”, p. 106-130 in Contemporary Conflict Resolution, Oliver Ramsbotham et al.; and Executive Summary of  “The UN Secretary General’s Report on the Prevention of Armed Conflict,” June 7, 2001 (2 pages)

 

Segment 4--Tools for Managing Conflicts—Bilateral and Multilateral Diplomacy and Economic Sanctions and Incentives

Key issues for discussion: Examination of how third-party and multilateral diplomacy is used to resolve conflicts; review of other tools used to encourage agreement among parties in conflict, including economic sanctions and incentives.

Reading:  “Sanctions and Stability Pacts: The Economic Tools of Peacemaking” by David Cortwright, p. 385-91 and 396-406 in Peacemaking in International Conflict: Methods & Techniques, editor, I. William Zartman (To be provided)

 

Week 4- Feb. 16 

Segment 5--Interstate Conflict

Keys issues for discussion:  Causes of inter-state conflict, including territorial

issues and secession; major inter-state conflicts since 1945; consequences of

war; how interstate wars were finally settled

Reading:  Chapter on “International Conflict” p. 149-160 and p.172-182 in International Relations, Eighth Edition, Joshua Goldstein and Jon Pevehouse, 2007 (to be provided)

 

Segment 6--Case Study of Inter-State Conflict and Outcomes—Ethiopia-Eritrea War (1998-2000)

Key issues for discussion:  Historical origins of conflict, how the war began, issues in dispute, role of the UN and mediators, and resolution to date

Reading:  “Secession and Its Aftermath: Eritrea” by Sandra F. Joireman, p. 176-187 in Managing and Settling Ethnic Conflict, editors Ulrich Schenkener et al. (to be provided)

 

Week 5-Feb. 23 

Segment 7--Ethnic Conflict–Nature and Causes

Key issues for discussion: Causes of ethnic conflicts and types of conflicts that have occurred in recent years

Reading: Chapter 4 “Understanding Contemporary Conflict (section on “Edward Azar’s Theory of Protracted Social Conflict (PSC)”), p. 84-96

 

Segment 8—Case Study of War in Bosnia (Former Yugoslavia) (1992-95)

Reading: To End a War, Richard Holbrooke, 1998, p. 21-33 and other material (to be provided)

 

Week 6-March 2

Segment 9--Introduction to Managing/Settling Ethnic Conflict

Key issues for discussion: Overview of range of incentive-based and coercive approaches to managing and settling ethnic conflicts

Reading: “Models of Ethnic Conflict Regulation” p. 18-34 only in Managing and Settling Ethnic Conflicts, Ulrich Schneckener et al.

 

Segment 10—Positive Approaches to Managing or Settling Ethnic Conflict: Democratic Governance; Power-Sharing and “Consociational” Arrangements; Federalism; and Secession

Case Study of Successful Settlement of Conflict in South Tyrol Region of Italy

Key issues for discussion: Analysis of positive approaches taken to stop ethnic violence and establish a long-term framework for peace and stability, and outcomes.

Reading: “Settling an Ethnic Conflict Through Powersharing: South Tyrol (Italy/Austria)” 

p. 57-70  in Managing and Settling Ethnic  Conflicts Ulrich Schneckener et al  (to be provided

 

Week 7-March 9

Segment 11— Approaches to Managing Ethnic Conflict Based on Controls, Coercion and “Co-optation”

Key issues for discussion: How control policies and “co-optation” can help manage ethnic conflicts and the negative aspects of such policies.

Reading:  Chapters on “Control Policies” p. 44-51 and “Co-optation” p. 81-93 in Keeping the Peace by Daniel Byman (to be provided)

 

Segment 12—Case Review of Israeli Policies Toward Ethnic Arabs in Israel

Reading: “Control Policies” in Keeping the Peace by Daniel Byman, p. 51-61 (to be provided)

 

Week 8-March 16

No Class. Spring Recess March 16-21  Opportunity to work on class essays and

class presentations

 

Week 9-March 23

Segment 12--Psychological, Social and Political Dimensions of Ethnic Conflict and Resolution

Key issues for discussion: Theoretical analysis of how psychological, social and political dynamics affect the nature of ethnic conflicts and prospects for peaceful resolution

Reading: “Socio-Psychological Dimensions of International Conflict“ p. 78-86 Section on Conflict as an Interactive Process in Peacemaking in International Conflict: Methods & Techniques, editor, I. William Zartman (to be provided)

 

Segment 12A—Class Exercise Part I—Small Group Discussions on New Initiative to Resolve Conflict in Darfur (Sudan)

Key Issue for discussion:  The class will break up into groups to discuss the conflict in Sudan and possible approaches to resolving the conflict.  Students will represent: members of the UN Security Council; the African Union; the Government of Sudan and Janjaweed Arab militias; and the Darfur rebel movements the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army and the Justice and Equality Movement.

Reading:  Background materials to be provided

 

 

 

Week 10-March 30

Segment 14--Principles of International Conflict Mediation

Key issues for discussion:  Requirements for effect mediation of international conflicts, drawing on the success of the Northern Ireland negotiations; importance of “ripeness” of conflict for negotiating a settlement.

Reading: Chapter 7 “Ending Violent Conflict: Peacemaking” (section on “Challenge of Ending Violent Conflict”) p. 160-176 in Contemporary Conflict Resolution, Oliver Ramsbotham et al.;:  “Northern Ireland: The Good Friday Solution” by Colm McKeogh in New Zealand International Review, 1998 (7 pages); and “Building a Negotiating Strategy” p. 96-115 only in Taming Intractable Conflicts: Mediation in the Hardest Cases by Chester Crocker et al. 2002 (to be provided)

 

Segment 15—Class Exercise Part II—Panel Debates on New Initiative to Resolve Conflict in Darfur (Sudan)

Key Issues for Discussion: The four groups will present their case to each other to see whether there is common ground for a path toward resolution.

 

Week 11-April 6 

Segment 16—Peacekeeping--Role of UN Missions in Limiting Conflict and Promoting Conflict Resolution and Bosnia Peacekeeping Phase I (1993-95)

Key issues for discussion: review of the different kinds of UN peacekeeping missions that have been employed to resolve conflicts; the challenges of organizing peacekeeping missions and making them effective; the limitation of UN peacekeeping missions; case study of failed UN peacekeeping mission in Bosnia (1992-95).

Reading: UN Charter, Chapters I, V, VI and VII; and Chapter 6 “Containing Violent Conflict: Peacekeeping” (first section only), p. 132-146; and “[UN] Peacekeeping and Warmaking” p. 77-104 and 111-112  in The Parliament of Man: The Past, Present and Future of the UN by Paul Kennedy” 2006 (charter and reading to be provided)

 

Student Presentation #1

 

Week 12-April 13

Segment 17—Peace Enforcement--Assessing Military Intervention in International Conflicts—Key issues for discussion: Examination of when military intervention is necessary and appropriate under international law and norms; review of the kinds of military intervention that have been used; consideration of how intervention often leads to unexpected consequences; the moral dilemma of conforming with international legal norms and the ethical need to stop mass violence; case study of NATO intervention in Bosnia (1995-96).

Reading: Chapter 6 “Containing Ethnic Conflict” (section beginning “Third-Generation Peacekeeping”) p. 147-158 and Chapter 13 “The Ethics of Intervention” p. 275-287 in Contemporary Conflict Resolution by Oliver Ramsbotham et al

 

Segment 18--Review of Bosnia Phase II--NATO Intervention” (1995-1996)

Reading: Section on “Operation Deliberate Force” in Getting to Dayton: The Making of America’s Bosnia Policy,  Ivo Daalder, 2000, p. 129-138 (to be provided)

 

Student Presentation #2

 

Week 13-April 20 

Segment 19- Peacebuilding--Review of Post-War Reconstruction Issues

Key issues for discussion: examination of challenges in ensuring a lasting peace after the violence is halted, including maintenance of security, strengthening the democratic process, institution building, economic reconstruction and protection of ethnic rights.

Reading: Chapter 9 “Peacebuilding” p. 215-230 in Contemporary Conflict Resolution by Oliver Ramsbotham et al; and “Relating Human Rights, Minority Rights and Self-determination to Minority Protection” by Kristin Henrard p. 51-54 only (Beginning with “Self Determination Reconsidered) in Managing and Settling Ethnic Conflict ed. Ulrich Schnekener et al (latter article to be provided)

Segment 20—Case Review of Bosnia Phase III—Peace Implementation (1996 to Present)

“Interim Notions of Statehood in Bosnia-Herzegovina” by Mark Baskin p. 277-286 in Interim Governments: Institutional Bridges to Peace & Democracy? Karen Guttieri and Jessica Piombo, editors, 2007 (to be provided)

 

Student Presentation #3

 

Week 14-April 27

 

Class essays due on April 27

 

Segment 21—Reconciliation--Long-Term Structural Changes to Promote Peace

Key issues for discussion: Social, political, economic and security changes needed to ensure fundamental reconciliation and long-term peace and stability; strategies for fostering these changes, including confidence-building measures, community empowerment, more equitable distribution of economic benefits, “truth commissions”, trials of war criminals and reparations

Reading:  Chapter 10 “Reconciliation” Chapter  p. 231-245 in ContemporaryConflict Resolution by Oliver Ramsbotham et al.

 

Student Presentation #4

 

Week 15-May 4

 

Student Presentation #5

 

Segment 22--Lessons Learned from Managing International Conflicts and Strategies for the Future

Key issues for discussion: Addressing the security dilemma, assessing control policies, considering the role of military force, devising an incentive-based participatory framework and implementing a broad post-conflict peacemaking and reconciliation strategy

Reading: “Future Directions: Towards Cosmopolitan Conflict Resolution” (Starting with “International Intervention”) p. 324-331, in Contemporary Conflict Resolution by Oliver Ramsbotham et al.; “Managing and Settling Ethnic Conflicts: the Context-Design Nexus” p. 271-284 in Managing and Settling Ethnic Conflicts by Ulrich Schneckener et al. (latter article to be provided)

 

Segment 23--Review for final exam

 

Week 16-May 11

 

Final Exam

Note: The scheduled time for the final exam is 7:15-9:15 pm

 

 


PS 250 Introduction to International Conflict Resolution

Essay Requirements

 

 

            Students writing an essay for the course should select a conflict from one of those listed below.  Please pre-clear the topic with me so that we don’t have more than one student researching the same topic.  The essay should be 5 double-spaced pages in length and include a bibliography on a separate page.  See the attached style sheet for further guidance on format and editing.  The deadline for submitting the essay is our class on Monday, April 26.  Late submissions will receive a minimum reduction of one letter grade. Note that 20 percent of the essay grade will depend on whether

 

Essays should address the following questions to the extent they are relevant to the particular conflict:

 

  • What is the historical context of the conflict?
  • Who are the parties to the dispute and the leaders of key factions?
  • What is the current status of the fighting among groups in conflict?
  • What are the key issues in dispute?
  • What efforts have been made and by whom to mediate the conflict?
  • What has been the role of UN peacekeepers or other multilateral and national forces (e.g., NATO, U.S., UK) in controlling the violence and enforcing peace agreements, and how successful have they been?
  • What efforts have been made at post-war reconstruction and reconciliation of conflicting groups and what progress has been made?
  • What is your assessment of the success of foreign intervention in resolving the immediate conflict and establishing an enduring foundation for peace over the long term?
  • What lessons have been learned from the effort in this case that might be relevant for other international conflicts?  (At least one page should be devoted to addressing this question)

 

The essays will be graded for both your presentation of factual knowledge and your ability to analyze relevant issues. Grammar and correctness of spelling and punctuation will also be considered so you should proofread you essays carefully.  Students who have difficulty writing essays or are still learning English as a second language should take advantage of the MC Writing Center to get help.  Remember that improving your writing and oral communications skills is also an important course objective.

 

Plagiarism will result in an automatic failing grade for the assignment.  Plagiarism includes copying material directly from sources and submitting the work of others as your own.  Most instructors can easily detect plagiarism because they can compare your writing style in quizzes and exams with that of your essay.

 

You should submit your essay topic to me for approval no later than March 2.   Please arrange a time to meet outside of class if you would like to discuss your topic in more detail or need help in finding sources of information.

 

 

 

 

 

 


PS 250 Introduction to International Conflict Resolution

Oral Presentation Requirements

 

 

Five students will have the opportunity to make an oral presentation to the class in place of an essay.  The presentations will be made in the five consecutive classes beginning on April 6 and ending May 4.  If more than five students are interested, a selection will be made by lot.

 

Students making an oral presentation should select a conflict from one of those listed below.  Please pre-clear the topic with me no later than March 2 so that we don’t have more than one student speaking on the same topic.  The oral presentation should be approximately 40 minutes in length and include a Microsoft PowerPoint slide show that highlights key points. (Montgomery College computers all have Microsoft PowerPoint software installed so you can type your presentation here at the campus if you do not have PowerPoint software in your computer at home.)  After the oral presentation, the presenter will answer questions from the class on their topic for about 20 minutes.

 

 In addition to preparing the PowerPoint presentations, students must submit after the class a 1 ˝-to-2 page essay on “lessons learned” from the case study that might be applicable to resolving other international conflicts.  Students must also submit with this summary a bibliography of sources used for the report. 

 

The presentation should address the following questions to the extent they are relevant to the particular conflict:

 

  • What is the historical context of the conflict?
  • What is the current status of the fighting among groups in conflict?
  • Who are the parties to the dispute and the leaders of key factions?
  • What are the key issues in dispute?
  • What efforts have been made and by whom to mediate the conflict
  • What has been the role of UN peacekeepers or other multilateral and national forces (e.g., NATO, U.S., UK) in controlling the violence and enforcing peace agreements, and how successful have they been?
  • What efforts have been made at post-war reconstruction and reconciliation of conflicting groups and what progress has been made?
  • What is your assessment of the success of foreign intervention in resolving the immediate conflict and establishing an enduring foundation for peace over the long term?
  • What lessons have been learned from the effort in this case that might be relevant for other international conflicts?

 


List of Conflicts for Student Essays and Oral Presentations

 

  1. El Salvador
  2. Nicaragua
  3. Colombia (FARC rebellion)
  4. Georgia/South Ossetia/Russia
  5. Haiti
  6. Kosovo (Serbia)
  7. Sri Lanka
  8. India-Pakistan (Kashmir Dispute)
  9. Palestinian-Israeli Conflict (Negotiation of Oslo Peace Accords or recent Bush Initiative)
  10. Israel-Gaza Dispute (2009)
  11. Congo
  12. Angola
  13. Chad
  14. Rwanda
  15. Sierra Leone
  16. Cote d’Ivoire
  17. Liberia
  18. South Africa
  19. Somalia
  20. Ethiopia-Eritrea
  21. Cambodia
  22. East Timor/Indonesia

 

Other international conflicts may be analyzed if they are relevant to our analysis and receive prior approval.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sample Research Paper Cover Page

 

TITLE OF PAPER

 

BY

 

IVAN STUDENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction to International Conflict Resolution

PS 250

Thursday Class

Date

 


FORMAT FOR YOUR BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

(In alphabetical order by last name of author. Use this exact format—APA Style)

 

Use this style with books

 

Goldstein, Joshua (2007). International relations, 8th Ed. New York: Pearson Longman. 

 

Use this style with articles

 

Huntington, Samuel (1988). The U.S.—Decline or renewal. Foreign Affairs. 67(2),76-92.  (Last numbers are the volume of the journal and page numbers)

 

NOTE: Wikipedia is not an acceptable bibliographic source for a research paper.

 

 

 

WRITING AND EDITING TIPS

 

  • Use standard rules of grammar and punctuation. (Re-check the basic rules, particularly on punctuation, if you are not sure.)

 

  • Divide your ideas into separate paragraphs. (Average paragraph length should be 4-6 sentences.)

 

  • Use only complete sentences (subject, verb and object).

 

  • Always end sentences with a “period” (.).  Avoid the use of semi-colons (;) as they are frequently used incorrectly.

 

  • Use the spell and grammar check on your computer.

 

  • Ask a friend who doesn’t know the subject you are writing about to read your paper and see if he or she can also easily understand your main points.

 

  • Proofread your paper at least twice to catch obvious spelling and punctuation errors.

 

  • Ask for help from the MC Writing Center in reviewing your final draft.  The staff are terrific and welcome all students.

 

·         Contact me well before the due date to discuss your ideas if you are having difficulty selecting a specific topic and writing your analysis.