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NEH Summer Institute @ MC

NEH Summer Institute @ MC

Concepts of Black Diaspora in the United States: Identity and Connections among African, Afro-Caribbean, and African American Communities

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Bibliography

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Download Scholarship on African Diaspora Immigrants in the US (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)


Adi, Hakim. Pan-Africanism: A History. New York, Bloomsbury Academic, 2018.

Afolayan, Tobi E., "Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States" (2011). Inquiry Journal. 1. https://scholars.unh.edu/inquiry_2011/1new window 

America Counts Staff/US Census. “Detailed Look at Sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Ancestry.” 21 Dec. 2017. https://census.gov/library/stories/2017/12/sub-saharan-caribbean-population.htmlnew window 

Anderson, Monica et al. A Rising Share of the U.S. Black Population Is Foreign Born. Pew Research Center, 2015. https://www.pewresearch.org/social-trends/2015/04/09/a-rising-share-of-the-u-s-black-population-is-foreign-born/new window 

Anderson, Monica and Gustavo Lopez. “Key Facts about Black Immigrants in the U.S.” Fact Tank. Pew Research Center, 24 January 2018, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/01/24/key-facts-about-black-immigrants-in-the-u-s/new window

Anderson, Monica. “African Immigrant Population in the U.S. Steadily Climbs.” Fact Tank. Pew Research Center, 14 February 2017, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/02/14/african-immigrant-population-in-u-s-steadily-climbs/new window 

Anyaduba, Chigbo A.  “Broadening the Canon: Africa and Its Non-Migrant Diasporas.” Critical Arts: A South-North Journal of Cultural & Media Studies, vol. 30, no. 4, Aug. 2016, pp. 43–57. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02560046.2016.1226728new window  

Barrio-Vilar, Laura. “‘ALL O’WE IS ONE’? Migration, Citizenship, and Black Nativism in the Postcolonial Era.” Callaloo, vol. 37, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, pp. 89–111, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24264873new window

“Black Immigrants in the United States: Status, Challenges, and Impacts.” Boundless.com. Boundless Immigration, Inc. ND. https://www.boundless.com/research/black-immigrants-in-the-united-states-status-challenges-and-impacts/new window

Bledsoe, Caroline H., and Papa Sow. “Back to Africa: Second Chances for the Children of West African Immigrants.” Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 73, no. 4, National Council on Family Relations, 2011, pp. 747–62, http://www.jstor.org/stable/29789622new window

Bryce-Laporte, Roy Simón. “Voluntary Immigration and Continuing Encounters between Blacks: The Post-Quincentenary Challenge.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 530, 1993, pp. 28–41. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1047675new window

Byfield, Judith, Ed. Gendering the African Diaspora: Women, Culture, and Historical Change in the Caribbean and Nigerian Hinterland. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 2010.

Byfield, Judith. “Introduction: Rethinking the African Diaspora.” African Studies Review, vol. 43, no. 1, 2000, pp. 1–9. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/524718new window

Capps, Randy, and Kristen McCabe and Michael Fix. Diverse Streams: African Migration to the United States. Migration Policy Institute. April 2012. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/CBI-african-migration-united-statesnew window

Chikanda, Abel, and Julie Susanne Morris. “Assessing the Integration Outcomes of African Immigrants in the United States.” African Geographical Review, vol. 40, no. 1, Mar. 2021, pp. 1–18.  doi:10.1080/19376812.2020.1744455. 

Collins, Patricia Hill. “New Commodities, New Consumers: Selling Blackness in a Global Marketplace.” Ethnicities, vol. 6, no. 3, 2006, pp. 297–317. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23889381new window

Douglas, Karen Manges, and Rogelio Sáenz. “The Criminalization of Immigrants & the Immigration-Industrial Complex.” Daedalus, vol. 142, no. 3, 2013, pp. 199–227. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43297260new window

Echeverria-Estrada, Carlos and Jeanne Batalova. “Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States.” MPI. Migration Policy Institute, 6, Nov. 2019., https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/sub-saharan-african-immigrants-united-statesnew window

Friedman, Samantha, et al. “Race, Immigrants, and Residence: A New Racial Geography of Washington, D.C.” Geographical Review, vol. 95, no. 2, 2005, pp. 210–230. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/30033988new window

Germain, Felix. “A ‘New’ Black Nationalism in the USA and France.” Journal of African American Studies, vol. 18, no. 3, 2014, pp. 286–304 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-013-9269-y new window

Gikandi, Halima. “’Much More Diverse Than People Think’: Black Immigrants Are Reshaping the Black Electorate.” The World and Public Radio International. 13 Oct. 2020. https://theworld.org/stories/2020-10-13/much-more-diverse-people-think-black-immigrants-are-reshaping-black-electoratenew window

Habib, Jasmin. “Encounters and the Diasporic Art of Africa: An Interview with Allyson Purpura, Curator of African Art, Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois.” Anthropologica, vol. 56, no. 1, 2014, pp. 229–237. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24469653new window

Hadero, Haleluya. “Black Immigrants Find Camaraderie, Divide Amid Protests.” Associated Press News. 17 Oct. 2020. https://apnews.com/article/race-and-ethnicity-ghana-police-police-brutality-racial-injustice-641a5eeb2f47668c6f810e1f77317651

Hall, Matthew. “Residential Integration on the New Frontier: Immigrant Segregation in Established and New Destinations.” Demography, vol. 50, no. 5, 2013, pp. 1873–1896. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/42919955new window

Hamilton, Tod. Immigration and the Remaking of Black America. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 2019.

Hernandez, Donald J. Changing Demography and Circumstances for Young Black Children in African and Caribbean Immigrant Families. Migration Policy Institute. April 2012. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/CBI-changing-demography-black-immigrant-childrennew window 

Hutchinson, George. “American Transnationalism and the Romance of Race.” Amerikastudien / American Studies, vol. 55, no. 4, 2010, pp. 687–697. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41158722new window

Jaret, Charles. “Troubled by Newcomers: Anti-Immigrant Attitudes and Action during Two Eras of Mass Immigration to the United States.” Journal of American Ethnic History, vol. 18, no. 3, 1999, pp. 9–39. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27502448new window

Lasky, Jack. “African Diaspora.” Salem Press Encyclopedia, 2017. 

Madawo, Larry. “Viewpoint: What it's Like To Be an African in the US.” BBC.com. British Broadcasting Company. 4 June 2020.  https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-52895490 new window 

Okigbo, Austin C. “Introduction: Music and New African Diasporas in North America.” The World of Music, vol. 4, no. 2, 2015, pp. 7–13. New Series, www.jstor.org/stable/43774591new window 

“Power of the Purse: The Contributions of Black Immigrants in the United States.” New American Research Fund. 19 March 2020. https://research.newamericaneconomy.org/report/black-immigrants-2020/ 

Ramirez, Horacio N. Roque. “Introduction: Homoerotic, Lesbian, and Gay Ethnic and Immigrant Histories.” Journal of American Ethnic History, vol. 29, no. 4, 2010, pp. 5–21. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/jamerethnhist.29.4.0005new window

Ray, Krishnendu. “The Immigrant Restaurateur and the American City: Taste, Toil, and the Politics of Inhabitation.” Social Research, vol. 81, no. 2, 2014, pp. 373–396. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/26549622new window

Rumbaut, Rubén G. “Origins and Destinies: Immigration to the United States Since World War II.” Sociological Forum, vol. 9, no. 4, 1994, pp. 583–621. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/685003new window

Saasa, Sherinah, and J. Lloyd Allen. “Social Exclusion among African Immigrants in the United States.” Social Work Research, vol. 45, no. 1, Mar. 2021, pp. 51–62.  doi:10.1093/swr/svaa022.

Saasa, Sherinah K. “Discrimination, Coping, and Social Exclusion among African Immigrants in the United States: A Moderation Analysis.” Social Work, vol. 64, no. 3, July 2019, pp. 198–206.  doi:10.1093/sw/swz018.

Select Diaspora Populations in the United States: Ethiopia, Haiti, Nigeria. Migration Policy Institute. July 2014. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/select-diaspora-populations-united-statesnew window 

Temple, Christel N. “Strategies for Cultural Renewal in an American-Based Version of African Globalism.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 36, no. 3, Sage Publications, Inc., 2006, pp. 301–17, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40035011new window 

Tesfai, Rebbeca. “Immigration and the Remaking of Black America.” Sociological  Forum, vol. 35, no. 1, Mar. 2020, pp. 253–257.  doi:10.1111/socf.12579.

Thomas, Kevin J A, and Ikubolajeh Logan. “African Female Immigration to the United States and Its Policy Implications.” Canadian Journal of African Studies vol. 46,1 (2012): 87-107. doi:10.1080/00083968.2012.659582. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4119759/new window 

Thomas, Kevin J. A. “Familial Influences on Poverty Among Young Children in Black Immigrant, U.S.-Born Black, and Nonblack Immigrant Families.” Demography, vol. 48, no. 2, 2011, pp. 437–460 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-011-0018-3new window

Walker, Sheila S.. “Milestones and Arrows: A Cultural Anthropologist Discovers the Global African Diaspora.” The Journal of African American History, vol. 100, no. 3, Association for the Study of African American Life and History, 2015, pp. 494–521, https://doi.org/10.5323/jafriamerhist.100.3.0494new window 

Washington, DC. “Facts on the District’s African Community.” Mayor’s Office on African Affairs. DC.Gov, https://oaa.dc.gov/page/facts-district%E2%80%99s-african-communitynew window

Washington, DC. “Local Demographics.” Mayor’s Office on African Affairs. DC.Gov, https://oaa.dc.gov/node/111192new window 

Watson, Vaughn W. M., et al. “Locating a Pedagogy of Love: (Re)Framing Pedagogies of Loss in Popular-Media Narratives of African Immigrant Communities.” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE), Oct. 2021, pp. 1–21.  doi:10.1080/09518398.2021.1982057.

West, Michael O. “Global Africa: The Emergence and Evolution of an Idea.” Review (Fernand Braudel Center), vol. 28, no. 1, 2005, pp. 85–108. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40241620new window

Adebajo, Adekeye. “Africa, African Americans, and the Avuncular Sam.” Africa Today, vol. 50, no. 3, Indiana University Press, 2004, pp. 93–110, http://www.jstor.org/stable/4187594

Amaize, Ohimai. “The ‘Social Distance’ Between Africa and African-Americans.” Daily. JSTOR.Org. JSTOR Daily. 14 July 2021. https://daily.jstor.org/the-social-distance-between-africa-and-african-americans/new window 

Baha, Hana, and Leila Day. “Africans And Black Americans Have A History Of Tension. Beyoncé And BLM Are Changing That.” NBC News. 28 Aug. 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-cgCDmjBjiUnew window

BBC News Africa. “Year of Return: The African Americans Moving to Ghana.” BBC.com. 31 Oct. 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IqoqhruujN4new window

Blyden, Nemata. African Americans and Africa: A New History. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 2019.

Blyden, Nemata. “Relationships among Blacks in the Diaspora: African and Caribbean Immigrants and American-Born Blacks,” in Africans in Global Migration: Searching for Promised Lands, ed. John A. Arthur, Joseph Takougang, and Thomas Owusu. Lanham, MD, Lexington Books, 2012, 161-174.

Blyden, Nemata, and Jeannette Jones. “Between Africa and America: Recalculating Black Americans’ Relationship to the Diaspora.” Perspectives on History.  20 Aug. 2020. https://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-on-history/september-2020/between-africa-and-america-recalibrating-black-americans-relationship-to-the-diasporanew window

CBS Mornings. “Black Americans Resettling in Ghana.” 21 Sept. 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1apK6mOZmyEnew window

Franklin, V. P. “‘Location, Location, Location’: The Cultural Geography of African Americans: Introduction to a Journey.” The Journal of African American History, vol. 87, 2002, pp. 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1086/JAAHv87n1p1new window

In Motion: The African American Migration Experience. The Schomburg Center for Research on Black Culture. 

Johnson, Charles. “The End of the Black American Narrative: A New Century Calls for New Stories Grounded in the Present, Leaving behind the Painful History of Slavery and Its Consequences.” The American Scholar, vol. 77, no. 3, 2008, pp. 32–42.  https://theamericanscholar.org/the-end-of-the-black-american-narrative/new window

Veney, Cassandra R. “The Ties That Bind: The Historic African Diaspora and Africa.” African Issues, vol. 30, no. 1, 2002, pp. 3–8. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1167082new window

Waters, Mary C., et al. “Immigrants and African Americans.” Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 40, 2014, pp. 369–390., www.jstor.org/stable/43049540new window

Cokley, Kevin, et al. “College Access Improves for Black Students but for Which Ones?”
The Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 97, no. 5, Phi Delta Kappa International, 2016, pp. 43–48, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24579777new window

Diallo, Bintou. “African Immigrant Women Within the United States Educational System: A Sociocultural/Experiential Analysis.” (2015). Undergraduate Honors Theses. 764. https://scholar.colorado.edu/honr_theses/764new window

Eunyoung Kim. “Bicultural Socialization Experiences of Black Immigrant Students at a Predominantly White Institution.” The Journal of Negro Education, vol. 83, no. 4, Journal of Negro Education, 2014, pp. 580–94, https://doi.org/10.7709/jnegroeducation.83.4.0580new window

KIRAMBA, LYDIAH, and JAMES OLOO. “Identity Negotiation in Multilingual Contexts: A Narrative Inquiry Into Experiences of an African Immigrant High School Student.” Teachers College Record, vol. 122, no. 13, Oct. 2020, pp. 1–24.

Kirlew, Shauna M. Morgan. “Neocolonialism and Ethnic Gerrymandering in the North American Academy.” CLA Journal, vol. 60, no. 2, College Language Association, 2016, pp. 244–59, http://www.jstor.org/stable/26355920new window

Lash, Cristina L.  “Making Americans: Schooling, Diversity, and Assimilation in the Twenty-First Century.” RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, vol. 4, no. 5, 2018, pp. 99–117. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.7758/rsf.2018.4.5.05new window

Manning, Patrick. “Education Across the African Diaspora, 1500–2020.” Peabody Journal of Education (0161956X), vol. 96, no. 2, Apr. 2021, pp. 125–134.  doi:10.1080/0161956X.2021.1905323.

Massey, Douglas S., et al. “Black Immigrants and Black Natives Attending Selective Colleges and Universities in the United States.” American Journal of Education, vol. 113, no. 2, 2007, pp. 243–271. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/510167new window

Myrick, Cecilia J. “Facilitating African Identity Development: Critical Literacy Books for African College Students.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 32, no. 4, Sage Publications, Inc., 2002, pp. 375–88, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3180881new window

NALUBEGA-BOOKER, KENDRA, and ARLETTE WILLIS. “Applying Critical Race Theory as a Tool for Examining the Literacies of Black Immigrant Youth.” Teachers College Record, vol. 122, no. 13, Oct. 2020, pp. 1–24. 

Shani, Serah. African Immigrant Families in the United States: Transnational Lives and Schooling. Lanham, MD, Lexington Books, 2018.

Madawo, Larry, and Karen Attiah. “’Black Panther’: Why the Relationship between Africans and Black Americans Is So Messed Up.” WashingtonPost.com. The Washington Post. 16 Feb. 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/02/16/black-panther-why-the-relationship-between-africans-and-african-americans-is-so-messed-up/new window

Adams, Cydney. “Not All Black People Are African American. Here’s the Difference.” CBSNews.com. 18 June 2020. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/not-all-black-people-are-african-american-what-is-the-difference/new window

Adida, Claire, and Amanda Robinson. “Becoming Black: Understanding Immigrant Resistance to Assimilation in the US.” Stanford University Workshop on Populism and Immigration. 2018. https://fsi-live.s3.us-west-1.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/adida_stanfordpopulismconference_june2018_1.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Asante, Godfried Agyeman. “Becoming ‘Black’ in America: Exploring Racial Identity Development of African Immigrants.” 2012. Minnesota State University Theses. https://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1042&context=etdsnew window

Benson, Janel E.. “Exploring the Racial Identities of Black Immigrants in the United States.” Sociological Forum, vol. 21, no. 2, [Wiley, Springer], 2006, pp. 219–47, http://www.jstor.org/stable/4540937new window

Chude-Sokei, Louis. “The Newly Black Americans.” Transition, no. 113, [Indiana University Press, Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University], 2014, pp. 52–71, https://doi.org/10.2979/transition.113.52new window

Clark, Msia Kibona. “Identity among First and Second Generation African Immigrants in the United States.” African Identities, vol. 6, no. 2, May 2008, pp. 169–181. DOI:10.1080/14725840801933999

Clerge, Orly. The New Noir: Race, Identity, and Diaspora in Black Suburbia. Berkeley,  University of California Press, 2019.

Fila-Bakabadio, Sarah. “‘Pick Your Afro Daddy’: Neo Soul and the Making of Diasporan Identities.” Cahiers D'Études Africaines, vol. 54, no. 216, 2014, pp. 919–944. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24476189new window

Foerster, Amy. “Race, Identity, and Belonging: ‘Blackness’ and the Struggle for Solidarity in a Multiethnic Labor Union.” Social Problems, vol. 51, no. 3, 2004, pp. 386–409. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/sp.2004.51.3.386new window

Hume, Susan E. “Ethnic and National Identities of Africans in the United States.” Geographical Review, vol. 98, no. 4, 2008, pp. 496–512. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40377350new window

Iheduru, Obioma. “Social Values, Democracy, and the Problem of African American Identity.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 37, no. 2, Sage Publications, Inc., 2006, pp. 209–30, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40034411new window

Johnson, Violet M. Showers. “‘What, Then, Is the African American?" African and Afro-Caribbean Identities in Black America.” Journal of American Ethnic History, vol. 28, no. 1, 2008, pp. 77–103. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27501883

Mocombe, Paul C. “The Negro, The ‘My Nigga,’ and The African.” Race, Gender & Class, vol. 23, no. 1–2, Jean Ait Belkhir, Race, Gender & Class Journal, 2016, pp. 46–60, https://www.jstor.org/stable/26529188new window

Shaw-Taylor, Yoku. “The Changing Face of Black America.” Contexts, vol. 8, no. 4, 2009, pp. 62–63. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/41960592new window

Stockman, Farah. “’We’re Self-Interested’: The Growing Identity Debate in Black America.” The New York Times. 8 Nov. 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/08/us/slavery-black-immigrants-ados.html?.?mc=aud_dev&ad-keywords=auddevgate&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIi9qD_vHy8wIVCp2zCh1URQSlEAMYASAAEgK1NvD_BwE&gclsrc=aw.dsnew window

Storr, Juliette. “Décalage: A Thematic Interpretation of Cultural Differences in the African Diaspora.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 39, no. 5, 2009, pp. 665–688 https://doi.org/10.1177/0021934707299643new window

Thomas, Brian W. “Struggling With the Past: Some Views of African-American Identity.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology, vol. 6, no. 2, 2002, pp. 143–151. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20852996new window

Foster, Christopher. Conscripts of Migration: Neoliberal Globalization, Nationalism, and the New Literature of African Diasporas. Oxford, MS: University of Mississippi Press, 2019.

Ledent, Bénédicte, and Daria Tunca. “Introduction.” Transition, no. 113, [Indiana University Press, Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University], 2014, pp. 1–10, https://doi.org/10.2979/transition.113.1new window

Li, Stephanie. Pan African American Literature: Signifin(g) Immigrants in the Twenty first Century. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2018.

Abdullah, Zain. “African ‘Soul Brothers’ in the ’Hood: Immigration, Islam, and the Black Encounter.” Anthropological Quarterly, vol. 82, no. 1, The George Washington University Institute for Ethnographic Research, 2009, pp. 37–62, http://www.jstor.org/stable/25488256new window

Cooper, Kenneth J. “Black Like Us.” Crisis, vol. 118, no. 2, Spring 2011, pp. 24–30. 

Darboe, Foday (2006) "Africans and African Americans: Conflicts, Stereotypes and Grudges," PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal: Vol. 2: Iss. 1, Article 19. https://doi.org/10.15760/mcnair.2006.48new window

Hamilton, Tod G. et al. “Black Immigration, Occupational Niches, and Earnings Disparities Between U.S.-Born and Foreign-Born Blacks in the United States.” RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, vol. 4, no. 1, 2018, pp. 60–77. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.7758/rsf.2018.4.1.04new window

Jackson, Jennifer V., and Mary E. Cothran. “Black versus Black: The Relationships among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 33, no. 5, Sage Publications, Inc., 2003, pp. 576–604, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3180977new window

Mason, Patrick L. “Culture and Intraracial Wage Inequality Among America's African Diaspora.” The American Economic Review, vol. 100, no. 2, 2010, pp. 309–315. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27805010new window

New York Public Library Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture: Digital Schomburg. https://www.nypl.org/about/locations/schomburg/digital-schomburgnew window

Thornton, Michael C. et al. “African American and Black Caribbean Feelings of Closeness to Africans.” Identities. 2017; 24(4): 493–512. 13 July 2016. https://doi.org/10.1080/1070289X.2016.1208096new window

Whittington, Elizabeth Y., et al. “Exploring Discursive Challenges between African Americans and African-Born U.S. Immigrants from the Standpoint of African Americans.” Southern Communication Journal, vol. 86, no. 1, Jan. 2021, pp. 71–83.  doi:10.1080/1041794X.2020.1861479.

Blum, Edward J., et al. “The Colors of Christ in the Diaspora of Africana Religions.” Journal of Africana Religions, vol. 2, no. 3, 2014, pp. 379–433. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.5325/jafrireli.2.3.0379new window

Conner, Randy. Queering Creole Spiritual Traditions: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Participation in African-Inspired Traditions in the Americas. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Frigerio, Alejandro. “Re-Africanization in Secondary Religious Diasporas: Constructing a World Religion.” Civilisations, vol. 51, no. 1/2, 2004, pp. 39–60. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41229681new window

Jackson, Regine O. “After the Exodus: The New Catholics in Boston's Old Ethnic Neighborhoods.” Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation, vol. 17, no. 2, 2007, pp. 191–212. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/rac.2007.17.2.191new window

Johnson, Sylvester A. “The Rise of Black Ethnics: The Ethnic Turn in African American Religions, 1916–1945.” Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation, vol. 20, no. 2, 2010, pp. 125–163. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/rac.2010.20.2.125new window

Rashid, Hussein, and Precious Rasheeda Muhammad. “American Muslim (Un)Exceptionalism: #BlackLivesMatter and #BringBackOurGirls.” Journal of Africana Religions, vol. 3, no. 4, Penn State University Press, 2015, pp. 478–95, https://doi.org/10.5325/jafrireli.3.4.0478new window 

Sackey-Ansah, Alex. “African Christian Immigrants.” Transformation (02653788), vol. 37, no. 1, Jan. 2020, pp. 66–82.  doi:10.1177/0265378819884569

Su'ad Abdul Khabeer, et al. “Theorizing Africana Religions: A Journal of Africana Religions Inaugural Symposium.” Journal of Africana Religions, vol. 2, no. 1, 2014, pp. 125–160. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.5325/jafrireli.2.1.0125new window

African Diaspora Flag

Download Scholarship on African Diasporas (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Documentary Films about the Relationship between Africans and African Americans


Baumann, Martin.

  • “Diaspora: Genealogies of Semantics and Transcultural
     Comparison.” Numen: International Review for the History of Religions, vol. 47, no. 3, July 2000, pp. 313–337. 
  • "Diaspora, African." Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students, edited by John Middleton, vol. 1,
     Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002, pp. 203-211. 
  • "Diaspora: Historiographical Debates." Encyclopedia of African History, edited by Kevin 
     Shillington, Routledge, 1st edition, 2004. 
  • "Diasporas." New Encyclopedia of Africa, edited by John Middleton and Joseph C. Miller, 2nd  ed., vol. 2,
     Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008, pp. 66-95.

Falola, Toyin. The African Diaspora: Slavery, Modernity, and Globalization. Binghampton, NY: SUNY Press, 2013.

Gomez, Michael A. "Migration in the African Diaspora." Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, edited by Colin A. Palmer, 2nd ed., vol. 4, Macmillan Reference USA, 2006, pp. 1433-1440.
Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3444700842/GVRL?u=rock77357&sid=GVRL&xid=470b55cf. Accessed 31 Jan. 2021.

Grossman, Jonathan. “Toward a Definition of Diaspora.” Ethnic & Racial Studies, vol. 42, no. 8, June 2019, pp. 1263–1282. 

Heller, Scott.

  • “African Diaspora Studies: Reconceptualizing Experiences of Blacks Worldwide.” Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. 38, no. 39, 3 June 1992, p. A8.
  • “Worldwide `diaspora’ of Peoples Poses New Challenges for Scholars.” Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. 38, no. 39, 3 June 1992, p. A7. 

Khan, Aisha. “Material and Immaterial Bodies: Diaspora Studies and the Problem of Culture, Identity, and Race.” Small Axe: A Caribbean Journal of Criticism, vol. 19, no. 3, Nov. 2015, pp. 29–49. 

Kim, Sandra So Hee Chi. “Redefining Diaspora through a Phenomenology of Postmemory.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, vol. 16, no. 3, Winter 2007, pp. 337–352.

Redmond, Shana L. "Diaspora." Keywords for African American Studies, Erica R. Edwards, et al., New York University Press, 1st edition, 2018. 

Swan, Quito.

  • "Transnationalism." Keywords for African American Studies, Erica R. Edwards, et al., New York University Press, 1st edition, 2018. 
  • "Black Power Abroad." Black Power Encyclopedia: From "Black Is Beautiful" to Urban Uprisings, edited by Akinyele Umoja, et al., vol. 1, Greenwood, 2018, pp. 143-154. Movements of the American Mosaic. Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX7641800036/GVRL?u=rock77357&sid=GVRL&xid=09f567d4. Accessed 31 Jan. 2021.

Zeleza, Paul Tiyambe. "African Diaspora." New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, edited by Maryanne Cline Horowitz, vol. 2, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005, pp. 578-583. Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3424300202/GVRL?u=rock77357&sid=GVRL&xid=0220e8c1. Accessed 31 Jan. 2021.


Documentary Films about the Relationship between Africans and African Americans

Africans in America: The Unfolding of Ethnic Identity. Dir. Mary Ann Watson. Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 2004.

GUEST SPEAKER: Black N Black: A Documentary Exploring the Relationship between African Americans and African Immigrants. Dir. Zadi Zokou. Zadi Zokou Productions, 2019.

Bound: Africans vs. African Americans. Peres Owino. Nyar Nam Productions, 2015.

Caribbean flag

Download Scholarship on Caribbean Immigrants in the US (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)


Austin, Sharon D. Wright, et al. “The Effect of Racial Group Consciousness on the Political Participation of African Americans and Black Ethnics in Miami-Dade County, Florida.” Political Research Quarterly, vol. 65, no. 3, 2012, pp. 629–641. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41635260new window

Brown, Tammy. City of Islands: Caribbean Intellectuals in New York. Oxford, MS: University of Mississippi Press, 2017.

“Caribbean Immigrant Population in the Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD Metro Areas.” Institute for Immigrant Research, George Mason University, https://iir.gmu.edu/immigrant-stories/the-caribbean/caribbean-immigrant-population-in-the-washington-dc-and-baltimore-md-metro-areasnew window

James, Winston. “Explaining Afro-Caribbean Social Mobility in the United States: Beyond the Sowell Thesis.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 44, no. 2, 2002, pp. 218–262. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3879446new window

Kasinitz, Philip. “Becoming American, Becoming Minority, Getting Ahead: The Role of Racial and Ethnic Status in the Upward Mobility of the Children of Immigrants.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 620, [Sage Publications, Inc., American Academy of Political and Social Science], 2008, pp. 253–69, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40375819new window

Lindsay, Keisha. “Beyond ‘Model Minority,’ ‘Superwoman,’ and ‘Endangered Species’: Theorizing Intersectional Coalitions among Black Immigrants, African American Women, and African American Men.” Journal of African American Studies, vol. 19, no. 1, Springer, 2015, pp. 18–35,  http://www.jstor.org/stable/43525575new window

Thornton, Michael C., et al. “African American and Black Caribbean Mutual Feelings of Closeness: Findings From a National Probability Survey.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 44, no. 8, Sage Publications, Inc., 2013, pp. 798–828, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24572893new window

Tillery, Alvin Bernard, and Michell Chresfield. “Model Blacks or ‘Ras the Exhorter’: A Quantitative Content Analysis of Black Newspapers’ Coverage of the First Wave of Afro-Caribbean Immigration to the United States.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 43, no. 5, Sage Publications, Inc., 2012, pp. 545–70,  http://www.jstor.org/stable/23215233new window

Williams, Kim M. “Black Political Interests on Immigrant Rights: Evidence from Black Newspapers, 2000–2013.” Journal of African American Studies, vol. 20, no. 3/4, 2016, pp. 248–271. http://www.jstor.org/stable/44508180new window 

Zong, Lie and Jeanne Batalova. “Caribbean Immigrants in the United States.” Migration Policy Institute. 13 Feb. 2019. https://www.migrationpolicyinstitute-europe.com/article/caribbean-immigrants-united-states-2009new window

MCLEAN, CHERYL A. “Racialized Tensions in the Multimodal Literacies of Black Immigrant Youth.” Teachers College Record, vol. 122, no. 13, Oct. 2020, pp. 1–22.

SKERRETT, ALLISON, and LAKEYA OMOGUN. “When Racial, Transnational, and Immigrant Identities, Literacies, and Languages Meet: Black Youth of Caribbean Origin Speak.” Teachers College Record, vol. 122, no. 13, Oct. 2020, pp. 1–24.

Smith, Naila A., et al. “Caribbean Immigrant Youths’ Ethnic Identity and Academic Achievement: The Role of Academic Beliefs.” Youth & Society, Dec. 2020, p. 1.  doi:10.1177/0044118x20981382.

Jones, Caralee, and Christy L. Erving. “Structural Constraints and Lived Realities: Negotiating Racial and Ethnic Identities for African Caribbeans in the United States.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 46, no. 5, 2015, pp. 521–46. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24572889new window 

Warner, Oswald. “Black in America Too: Afro-Caribbean Immigrants.” Social and Economic Studies, vol. 61, no. 4, 2012, pp. 69–103. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24384427new window

Taylor, Robert Joseph, et al. “Religious Involvement among Caribbean Blacks Residing in the United States.” Review of Religious Research, vol. 52, no. 2, 2010, pp. 125–145. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23054149new window

Ethiopian Flag

Download Scholarship on Ethiopian Immigrants in the US (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)


Ater, Renée. “Making History: Meta Warrick Fuller's ‘Ethiopia.’” American Art, vol. 17, no. 3, 2003, pp. 13–1. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1215807new window

Demissie, Fassil, Ed. Ethiopians in an Age of Migration: Scattered Lives Beyond Borders. Routledge, 2017.

Demessie, Menna. “Rethinking the American Dream: The Cost of Coming to America: Immigration and Depression in the Case of Sinedu Tadesse.” International Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 4, no. 1/2, 2009, pp. 85–104. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27828906new window

Farmer, Ashley D.. “Mothers of Pan-Africanism: Audley Moore and Dara Abubakari.” Women, Gender, and Families of Color, vol. 4, no. 2, University of Illinois Press, 2016, pp. 274–95, https://doi.org/10.5406/womgenfamcol.4.2.0274new window

Gebrekidan, Fikru Negash. “Ethiopia in Black Studies from W. E. B. Du Bois to Henry Louis Gates, Jr.” Northeast African Studies, vol. 15, no. 1, Michigan State University Press, 2015, pp. 1–34, https://doi.org/10.14321/nortafristud.15.1.0001new window

Getachew, Solomon Addis. The History of Ethiopian Immigrants and Refugees in America, 1900-2000. LFB Scholarly Publishing, 2006.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21674736.2018.1512809new window

Guenther, Katja M., et al. “The Impact of Intersecting Dimensions of Inequality and Identity on the Racial Status of Eastern African Immigrants.” Sociological Forum, vol. 26, no. 1, 2011, pp. 98–120. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23027283new window

Jalata, Asafa. “Comparing the African American And Oromo Movements in the Global Context.” Social Justice, vol. 30, no. 1 (91), 2003, pp. 67–111. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/29768167new window

Kobel, Paul S. "Ethiopian Americans." Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, edited by Thomas Riggs, 3rd ed., vol. 2, Gale, 2014, pp. 107-118.

Levine, Donald N. “Ethiopia's Nationhood Reconsidered.” Análise Social, vol. 46, no. 199, 2011, pp. 311–327. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41494856new window

Levine, Donald N. “Reconfiguring the Ethiopian Nation in a Global Era.” International Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 1, no. 2, 2004, pp. 1–15. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27828836new window

McVety, Amanda Kay. “The 1903 Skinner Mission: Images of Ethiopia in the Progressive Era.” The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, vol. 10, no. 2, Society for Historians of the Gilded Age & Progressive Era, 2011, pp. 187–212, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23045157new window

Metaferia, Getachew. Ethiopia and the United States: History, Diplomacy, and Analysis. NC, Algora, 2009.

Putnam, Aric. “Ethiopia Is Now: J. A. Rogers and the Rhetoric of Black Anticolonialism During the Great Depression.” Rhetoric and Public Affairs, vol. 10, no. 3, 2007, pp. 419–444. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41940154new window

Quirin, James. “W.E.B. Du Bois, Ethiopianism and Ethiopia, 1890-1955.” International Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 5, no. 2, 2010, pp. 1–26. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41757589new window 

Scott, William. “The Ethiopian Ethos in African American Thought.” International Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 1, no. 2, 2004, pp. 40–57. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27828838new window

White, Aaronette M. “Unpacking Black Feminist Pedagogy in Ethiopia.” Feminist Teacher, vol. 21, no. 3, University of Illinois Press, 2011, pp. 195–211, https://doi.org/10.5406/femteacher.21.3.0195new window

“The Ethiopian Diaspora in the United States.” Migration Policy Institute. July 2014.

Jalata, Asafa. “The Place of the Oromo Diaspora in the Oromo National Movement: Lessons from the Agency of the ‘Old’ African Diaspora in the United States.” Northeast African Studies, vol. 9, no. 3, 2002, pp. 133–160. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41931284new window

Terrazas, Aaron Matteo. “Beyond Regional Circularity: The Emergence of an Ethiopian Diaspora.” Migration Policy Institute. 1 June 2007. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/beyond-regional-circularity-emergence-ethiopian-diasporanew window

Wynn, Adrienne, Greg Wigan, Marcia Watson-Vandiver, and Annette Teasdale. Race, Class, Gender, and Immigrant Identities in Education: Perspectives from First and Second Generation Ethiopian Students. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2021.

“Director Messay Getahun Talks ‘Lambadina (Night Light)’ As a Different Kind of African Narrative.” ShadowandAct.com. Shadow and Act. 20 April 2017. https://shadowandact.com/montreal-international-black-film-festival-director-messay-getahun-talks-lambadina-night-light-as-a-different-kind-of-african-narrativenew window

Field, Allyson Nadia. “To Journey Imperfectly: Black Cinema Aesthetics and the Filmic Language of Sankofa.” Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media, vol. 55, no. 2, [Drake Stutesman, Wayne State University Press], 2014, pp. 171–90, https://doi.org/10.13110/framework.55.2.0171new window 

“Filmmaker Haile Gerima.” NPR.org. WAMU. 5 April 1994. https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1107587new window

Grayson, Sandra M. “‘SPIRITS OF ASONA ANCESTORS COME’: READING ASANTE SIGNS IN HAILE GERIMA’S ‘SANKOFA.’” CLA Journal, vol. 42, no. 2, College Language Association, 1998, pp. 212–27, http://www.jstor.org/stable/44323194new window

“Haile Gerima on the Role of Storytelling in His Work.” Arts.gov. National Endowment for the Arts. ND. 
https://www.arts.gov/stories/other/haile-gerima-role-storytelling-his-work#transcriptnew window

“Haile Gerima’s Black Radical Tradition On Screen: African Cinema of Liberation at Home and Abroad.” Black Camera, vol. 3, no. 1, Indiana University Press, 2011, pp. 7–8, https://doi.org/10.2979/blackcamera.3.1.7new window

“Interview: Haile Gerima on His Oeuvre, Concern for the Future of Black Indie Cinema + More.” ShadowAndAct.com. Shadow and Act. 20 April 2017. https://shadowandact.com/interview-haile-gerima-on-his-oeuvre-concern-for-the-future-of-black-indie-cinema-morenew window

Jackson, J. L. (2010). Decolonizing the Filmic Mind: An Interview with Haile Gerima. CALLALOO: A Journal of African Diaspora Arts and Letters, 33 (1), 25-36. https://yehaarts.com/upload/PDF/embodiment/Haile%20Gerima.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Jackson, John L., Jr. “A Conversation on Black Aesthetics.” YouTube.com. Blackstar Film Festival. 4 August 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Q6Je-QvS8s&feature=youtu.benew window

Kandé, Sylvie, and Joe Karaganis. “Look Homeward, Angel: Maroons and Mulattos in Haile Gerima’s ‘Sankofa.’” Research in African Literatures, vol. 29, no. 2, Indiana University Press, 1998, pp. 128–46, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3820726new window

“L.A. Rebellion: Haile Gerima.” CinemaUCLA.edu. UCLA Media and Film Archive. 2014. 
 https://www.cinema.ucla.edu/la-rebellion/haile-gerimanew window

Marbrey, Stacey. “Let’s Talk ‘Residue’.” Slamdance, 2020. https://slamdance.com/merawi-gerima-on-residue/

McKenna. Kristine. “‘Sankofa’: A Saga of Slavery Reaches the Big Screen: Movies: Haile Gerima Hit a Brick Wall When Trying to Finance His Story of a Black Woman, So He Did It Himself.” LATimes.com. Los Angeles Times. 29 May 1995. https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1995-05-29-ca-7370-story.htmlnew window

Saito, Steven. “Interview: Vivid Portrait on the Emotions That Never Fade Away.” Moveablefest.com, 17 Sept. 2020. http://moveablefest.com/merawi-gerima-residue/new window

Sankofa with Haile Gerima and Aboubacar Sanogo -TIFF Talks.” Youtube.com. 16 April 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aN0p-7EFkw8new window

Sandoval, Lapacazo.  “Ethiopian Filmmaker Salome Mulugeta’s Captivating Family Drama, 'WOVEN,' Is A Must-See.” Essence.com.  4 Jan. 2019. https://www.essence.com/entertainment/woven-salome-mulugeta-ethiopian-filmmaker/new window

Sandoval, Lapacazo. “A Year after the Los Angeles Film Festival, An Ethiopian Filmmaker’s Career Soars: A Year with Salome Mulugeta.” LASentinel.net. Los Angeles Sentinal. 1 June 2017.  https://lasentinel.net/a-year-after-the-los-angeles-film-festival-an-ethiopian-filmmakers-career-soars.htmlnew window

Thomas, Greg. "Haile Gerima’s Black Radical Tradition On Screen: African Cinema of Liberation at Home and Abroad." Black Camera, vol. 3 no. 1, 2011, p. 7-8.

Thomas, Greg. “On Teza, Cinema, and American Empire: An Interview with Haile Gerima.” Black Camera, vol. 4, no. 2, 2013, pp. 84–104. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/blackcamera.4.2.84new window

Turner, Diane D., and Muata Kamdibe. “Haile Gerima: In Search of an Africana Cinema.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 38, no. 6, Sage Publications, Inc., 2008, pp. 968–91, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40035034new window

Vivarelli, Nick. “Director Merawi Gerima on ‘Residue’ as a Weapon in Battle for Black People’s Rights.” Variety, 12 Sept. 2020. https://variety.com/2020/film/news/merawi-gerima-on-residue-as-a-weapon-in-battle-for-black-peoples-rights-1234766535/new window

Woubshet, Dagmawi, and SALEM MEKURIA. “AN INTERVIEW WITH SALEM MEKURIA.” Callaloo, vol. 33, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010, pp. 314–17, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40732823new window

Chacko, Elizabeth. “Identity and Assimilation among Young Ethiopian Immigrants in Metropolitan Washington.” Geographical Review, vol. 93, no. 4, [American Geographical Society, Wiley], 2003, pp. 491–506, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30033939new window

Chernela, Janet, et al. “IDEOLOGIES OF HERITAGE: LANGUAGE, COMMUNITY, AND IDENTITY AMONG ETHIOPIAN IMMIGRANTS IN PRINCE GEORGE’S COUNTY, MARYLAND.” Practicing Anthropology, vol. 31, no. 3, Society for Applied Anthropology, 2009, pp. 15–19, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24781915new window

Girma, Hewan. “Black Names, Immigrant Names: Navigating Race and Ethnicity Through Personal Names.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 51, no. 1, Jan. 2020, pp. 16–36.

Habecker, Shelly. “Not Black, but Habasha: Ethiopian and Eritrean Immigrants in American Society.” Ethnic & Racial Studies, vol. 35, no. 7, July 2012, pp. 1200–1219. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2011.598232new window

Kai, Nubia. “JOURNEY TO MY ETHIOPEAN HOMELAND.” The Journal of African American History, vol. 98, no. 4, Association for the Study of African American Life and History, 2013, pp. 623–35, https://doi.org/10.5323/jafriamerhist.98.4.0623new window

Jalata, Asafa. “Being in and out of Africa: The Impact of Duality of Ethiopianism.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 40, no. 2, 2009, pp. 189–214 https://doi.org/10.1177/0021934707307833new window

Raleigh, Elizabeth. “The Color Line Exception: The Transracial Adoption of Foreign-Born and Biracial Black Children.” Women, Gender, and Families of Color, vol. 4, no. 1, University of Illinois Press, 2016, pp. 86–107, https://doi.org/10.5406/womgenfamcol.4.1.0086new window

Sexton, Jared. “People-of-Color-Blindness: Notes on the Afterlife of Slavery.” Social Text, vol. 28, no. 2_103, Summer 2010, pp. 31–56. https://doi.org/10.1215/01642472-2009-066new window

Wilson, Ivy. “‘ARE YOU MAN ENOUGH?’ Imagining Ethiopia and Transnational Black Masculinity.” Callaloo, vol. 33, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010, pp. 265–77, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40732815new window

Yates, Brian J. “From White Males to Black Females: Understanding the National Bodies of Ethiopia (1896-1936).” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 44, no. 1, Sage Publications, Inc., 2013, pp. 81–100, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23414705new window

Languages and Literatures of the Major Ethnic Groups in the Ethiopian Community

These articles show that Ethiopia is not linguistically or ethnically monolithic and that there is a modern literary tradition in the languages (Afaan Oroma, Amharic, Tigrinya) of the three largest ethnic groups in Ethiopia.

Admassu, Yonas. “What Were They Writing About Anyway?: Tradition and Modernization in Amharic Literature.” Callaloo, volume 33, no. 1, 2010, pp. 64-81.

Ghirmai, Negash. “A History of Tigrinya Literature in Eritrea: The Oral and the Written 1890–1991.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 43, no. 1, 2012, pp. 58–64.

Tafa, Teferi Nigussie. “The representation of ‘Ethiopianness’ and ‘Oromoness’ in Two Oromo-language Novels: Yoomi Laataa by Isaayas Hordofaa and Kuusaa Gadoo by Gaaddisaa Birruu.” Journal of African Cultural Studies, vol. 27, no. 1, 2015, 2015, pp. 84–97.

Adebayo, Sakiru. “Dis/Ruptures of Home and Citizenship: Memory, Migration and the Production of Translocalities in Dinaw Mengestu’s Children of the Revolution.” Kairos: A Journal of Critical Symposium, vol. 4, no. 1, 2019, pp. 94–106.

Belcher, Wendy Laura. “FROM SHEBA THEY COME Medieval Ethiopian Myth, US Newspapers, and a Modern American Narrative.” Callaloo, vol. 33, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010, pp. 239–57, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40732813new window

Goyal, Yogita. “We Need New Diasporas.” Runaway Genres: The Global Afterlives of Slavery, edited by Yogita Goyal, New York University Press, 2019, pp. 171–210.

Haile, Getatchew. “Amharic Poetry of the Ethiopian Diaspora in America: A Sampler.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, vol. 15, no. 2/3, Fall/Winter2006 2006, pp. 321–339. DOI: 10.1353/dsp.2011.0069

Hamilton, Grant. “Aporia and Diaspora: the Unliveable Life in Dinaw Mengestu’s How to Read the Air,” Journal of the African Literature Association, 12:2 (2018), 153-165. 

Kiper, Dmitry. “Dinaw Mengestu.” Current Biography, vol. 76, no. 1, Apr. 2015, pp. 37–42.  

Ledent, Bénédicte. “Reconfiguring the African Diaspora in Dinaw Mengestu’s The Beautiful Things That Heaven Bears.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 46, no. 4, Indiana University Press, 2015, pp. 107–18, https://doi.org/10.2979/reseafrilite.46.4.107new window

Mengestu, Dinaw. “Lost and Found Identities in Dinaw Mengestu’s All Our Names. PBS.org/newshour. PBS. 14 May 2014. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/arts/moment-hope-lost-found-identities-namesnew window

Musila, Grace A. “The Afterlives of Slavery and the Narrative Pressures of Black Precarity in Dinaw Mengestu’s How to Read the Air.” Slavery & Abolition, vol. 41, no. 1, Mar. 2020, pp. 110–130.

Openda, Ruth Kwamboka. “Alienation and Estrangement in Dinaw Mengestu’s All Our Names.” Tydskrif Vir Letterkunde, vol. 58, no. 1, 2021, pp. 25–34.

Palmer, Jack. “Interview with Maaza Mengiste.” BombMagazine.org. BOMB. 11 January 2010. https://bombmagazine.org/articles/maaza-mengistenew window

Sbiri, Kamal. “Décalage and Borderscaping in Dinaw Mengestu’s The Beautiful Things That Heaven Bears.” Journal of the African Literature Association, vol. 15, no. 2, 2021, pp. 257–271.

Singer, Christoph. “The Camp as Extra-Temporal Space in E.C. Osondu’s ‘Waiting’ and Dinaw Mengestu’s ‘An Honest Exit.’” Timescapes of Waiting: Spaces of Stasis, Delay and Deferral, edited by Christoph Singer et al., Brill/Rodopi, 2019, pp. 94–107.

Tembo, Nick M. "Reframing Migrant Identities: Namelessness and Impersonation in Dinaw Mengestu's All Our Names." Literator: Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies, vol. 40, no. 1, 2019. DOI:10.4102/lit.v40i1.1581

Tembo, Nick Mdika. “Challenging Androcentric Conceptions of Nationalism: Reimagining Female Agency in Maaza Mengiste’s Beneath the Lion’s Gaze.” Scrutiny2: Issues in English Studies in Southern Africa, vol. 25, no. 3, 2020, pp. 24–35. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/18125441.2020.1780300.

Thomas, Steven W. “The Context of Multi-Ethnic Politics for Ethiopian American Literature.” MELUS: The Journal of the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States, vol. 45, no. 1, 2020, pp. 117–138.

Ulaby, Neda. “Ethiopian-American Artists Make Their Mark.” NPR.org. NPR. 13 March 2008. https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=7853032new window

Varvogli, A. (2017). Urban Mobility and Race: Dinaw Mengestu's The Beautiful Things That Heaven Bears and Teju Cole's Open City. Studies in American Fiction, 44(2), 235-257. https://doi.org/10.1353/saf.2017.0010new window

Woubshet, Dagmawi, and ANDREAS ESHETE. “AN INTERVIEW WITH ANDREAS ESHETE.” Callaloo, vol. 33, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010, pp. 102–16, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40732798new window

Shelemay, Kay Kaufman. “Ethiopian Musical Invention in Diaspora: A Tale of Three Musicians.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, vol. 15, no. 2/3, Fall/Winter2006 2006, pp. 303–320.  DOI: 10.1353/dsp.2011.0067

Webster-Kogen, Ilana. “Engendering Homeland: Migration, Diaspora and Feminism in Ethiopian Music.” Journal of African Cultural Studies, vol. 25, no. 2, 2013, pp. 183–196. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/42005318new window

Heldman, Marilyn E. “Creating Sacred Space: Orthodox Churches of the Ethiopian American Diaspora.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, vol. 15, no. 2/3, Fall/Winter2006 2006, pp. 285–302. DOI: 10.1353/dsp.2011.0078

Lozano, Teresita D. “‘It's a Coptic Thing’: Music, Liturgy, and Religious Identity in an American Coptic Community.” The World of Music, vol. 4, no. 2, 2015, pp. 37–56. New Series, www.jstor.org/stable/43774593new window

Sellers, Allison Paige. “The ‘Black Man's Bible’: The Holy Piby, Garveyism, and Black Supremacy in the Interwar Years.” Journal of Africana Religions, vol. 3, no. 3, 2015, pp. 325–342. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.5325/jafrireli.3.3.0325new window

Haitian Flag

Download Scholarship on Haitian Americans (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)


Allen, Andrea, et al. “Earthquake Impact on Miami Haitian Americans: The Role of Family/Social Connectedness.” Journal of Loss & Trauma, vol. 17, no. 4, July 2012, pp. 337–349. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2011.635577new window

Belizaire, Lonette S., and Jairo N. Fuertes. “Attachment, Coping, Acculturative Stress, and Quality of Life Among Haitian Immigrants.” Journal of Counseling & Development, vol. 89, no. 1, Winter 2011, pp. 89–97.  DOI: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2011.tb00064.x https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-78649492741&doi=10.1002%2fj.15566678.2011.tb00064.x&partnerID=40&md5=7af5c5cf0a5c511582b1d45ff2c08ba8 new window

Brezenski, Thomas F. “Lessons Learned? A Comparison of Modern State Immigration Laws and Past Federal Health Policy in the Stigmatization of Minority Groups in the United States.” Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (1947-2900), vol. 3, no. 3, Sept. 2011, pp. 25–37. 

Byrd, Brandon R. “‘To Start Something to Help These People’: African American Women and the Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 21, no. 2, 2015, pp. 154–180. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43741125new window

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Clavin, Mathew. Toussaint Louverture and the American Civil War. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.

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Kachun, Mitch. “Antebellum African Americans, Public Commemoration, and the Haitian Revolution: A Problem of Historical Mythmaking.” Journal of the Early Republic, vol. 26, no. 2, 2006, pp. 249–273. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/30043409new window

Jackson, Maurice. “‘Friends of the Negro! Fly with Me, The Path Is Open to the Sea’: Remembering the Haitian Revolution in the History, Music, and Culture of the African American People.” Early American Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, 2008, pp. 59–103. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23546567new window

Jackson, Maurice and Jacqueline Bacon. African Americans and the Haitian Revolution: Selected Essays and Historical Documents. Routledge, 2013.

Reid, Patricia A. “The Haitian Revolution, Black Petitioners and Refugee Widows in Maryland, 1796-1820.” The American Journal of Legal History, vol. 50, no. 4, 2008, pp. 431–452. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25734136new window

Shilliam, Robert. “What the Haitian Revolution Might Tell Us about Development, Security, and the Politics of Race.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 50, no. 3, 2008, pp. 778–808. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27563698new window

Bachay, Judith. “Ethnic Identity Development and Urban Haitian Adolescents.” Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, vol. 26, no. 2, Apr. 1998, pp. 96–109. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.1998.tb00190.xnew window

Brodwin, Paul. “Marginality and Subjectivity in the Haitian Diaspora.” Anthropological Quarterly, vol. 76, no. 3, 2003, pp. 383–410. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3318182new window

Clerge, Orly. “Balancing Stigma and Status: Racial and Class Identities among Middle-Class Haitian Youth.” Ethnic & Racial Studies, vol. 37, no. 6, June 2014, pp. 958–977.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2012.748209new window

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Degraff, Michel. “Creole Exceptionalism and the (Mis)Education of the Creole Speaker.” The Languages of Africa and the Diaspora,  edited by Jo Anne Kleifgen and George C. Bond, Multilingual Matters, 2009. http://lingphil.mit.edu/papers/degraff/degraff2009creole_exceptionalism_and_the_mis_education_of_the_creole_speaker.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Degraff, Michel. “Forward: Against Apartheid in Education and in Linguistics: The Case of Haitian Creole in Neo-Colonial Haiti.” Decolonizing Foreign Language Education: The Misteaching of English and Other Colonial Languages, edited by Donald Macedo, Routledge, 2019. http://lingphil.scripts.mit.edu/papers/degraff/DeGraff_2019_Against_Apartheid_in_Haiti.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Dejean, Yves.  “Creole and Education in Haiti.”  The Haitian Creole Language: History, Structure, Use and Education, edited by Arthur K. Spears and Carole M. Berotte Joseph, Lexington Book, 2010, pp. 199-216.

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St. Fort, Hughes.  “Creole-English Code- Switching in New York City.”  The Haitian Creole Language: History, Structure, Use and Education, edited by Arthur K. Spears and Carole M. Berotte Joseph, Lexington Book, 2010, pp. 131-152.

Zephir, Flore.  “The Languages of Haiti and the Diaspora.”  The Haitian Creole Language: History, Structure, Use and Education, edited by Arthur K. Spears and Carole M. Berotte Joseph, Lexington Book, 2010, pp. 55-82.

Adisa, Opal Palmer. “Up Close and Personal: Edwidge Danticat on Haitian Identity and the Writer's Life.” African American Review, vol. 43, no. 2/3, 2009, pp. 345–355. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41328611new window

Alexander, Simone A. James. “M/Othering the Nation: Women’s Bodies as Nationalist Trope in Edwidge Danticat’s ‘Breath, Eyes, Memory.’” African American Review, vol. 44, no. 3, [Indiana State University, Saint Louis University, African American Review, African American Review (St. Louis University)], 2011, pp. 373–90, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23316192new window

Alexander, Simone A. James. “Mapping Diasporic and Transnational Subjectivities: Edwidge Danticat’s Politics of Exile and Home/Comings.” Transnational Africana Women’s Fictions, edited by Cheryl Sterling, Routledge, 2021, pp. 32–49.

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Bellamy, Maria Rice. “More than Hunter or Prey: Duality and Traumatic Memory in Edwidge Danticat’s ‘The Dew Breaker.’” MELUS, vol. 37, no. 1, [Oxford University Press, Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States (MELUS)], 2012, pp. 177–97, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41440718new window

Boisseron, Benedicte. Creole Renegades: Rhetoric of Betrayal and Guilt in the Caribbean Diaspora. Tallahassee, FL: University Press of Florida, 2014.

Bost, Darius. “‘A VOICE DEMONIC AND PROUD’: SHIFTING THE GEOGRAPHIES OF BLAME IN ASSOTTO SAINT’S ‘SACRED LIFE: ART AND AIDS.’” AIDS and the Distribution of Crises, edited by Jih-Fei Cheng et al., Duke University Press, 2020, pp. 148–61, https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv11smg7x.12new window

Braziel, Jana Evans and Nadege Clitandre, Eds.. The Bloomsbury Handbook to Edwidge Danticat. London, Bloomsbury Academic, 2021.

Braziel, Jana. Artists, Performers, and Black Masculinity in the Haitian Diaspora. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.

Chen, Wilson C. “Figures of Flight and Entrapment in Edwidge Danticat’s ‘Krik? Krak!’” Rocky Mountain Review, vol. 65, no. 1, Rocky Mountain Modern Language Association, 2011, pp. 36–55, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41289362new window

Clitandre, Nadege T. Edwidge Danticat: The Haitian Diasporic Imaginary. Charlottesville, University of Virginia Press, 2018.

Collins, Jo. "Between worlds: imagining dyaspora in Danticat's The Dew Breaker and Chancy's The Spirit of Haiti." ARIEL, vol. 42, no. 3-4, 2011, p. 121+. “Conversation with Edwidge Danticat: Haitian Literature Is a Living Art.”  Arts. 14 Jan. 14, 2011. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/arts/conversation-after-earthquake-haitian-literature-holds-strongnew window

“The Dew Breaker.” PBS News Hour. 5 May 2004. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/the-dew-breakernew window

Durban-Albrecht, Erin. “The Legacy of Assotto Saint: Tracing Transnational History from the Gay Haitian Diaspora.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 19, no. 1, 2013, pp. 235–256. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24344220new window

“Edwidge Danticat on the Struggle of Haitian Immigrants.” PBS Need To Know. 7 April 2011. https://www.pbs.org/video/need-to-know-edwidge-danticat-on-the-struggle-of-haitian-immigrants/new window

“Edwidge Danticat: 'Whether Or Not We Belong Is Not Defined By Us'.” National Public Radio. 30 August 2019. https://www.npr.org/2019/08/30/754393771/edwidge-danticat-whether-or-not-we-belong-is-not-defined-by-usnew window

Francis, Donette A. “‘Silences Too Horrific to Disturb’: Writing Sexual Histories in Edwidge Danticat’s ‘Breath, Eyes, Memory.’” Research in African Literatures, vol. 35, no. 2, Indiana University Press, 2004, pp. 75–90, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3821346new window

Gay, Roxane. “Love without Limits.” Essence, vol. 49, no. 4, Sept. 2018, pp. 82–83. 

Gay, Roxane, and John Freeman. “Roxane Gay.” BOMB, no. 128, New Art Publications, 2014, pp. 102–08, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24365894new window

Glover, Kaiama L. “Must the Subaltern Speak: Edwidge Danticat, Feminism, and the Right to Silence.” The Scholar and Feminist Online, vol. 16, no. 1, 2019.

“An Interview with Edwidge Danticat.” Brooklyn Review. Fall 2018. http://www.bkreview.org/fall-2018/an-interview-with-edwidge-danticat/new window

Joseph, Celucien, Suchismita Banerjee, Marvin Hobson, and Danny Hoey. Approaches To Teaching the Works of Edwidge Danticat. New York, Routledge, 2020.

Lascelles, Amber. “Locating Black Feminist Resistance through Diaspora and Post-Diaspora in Edwidge Danticat’s and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Short Stories.” African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal, vol. 13, no. 2, 2020, pp. 227–240. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/17528631.2020.1750176.

Loichot, Valérie. “Edwidge Danticat's Kitchen History.” Meridians, vol. 5, no. 1, 2004, pp. 92–116.

Markel, Howard, and Alexandra Minna Stern. “The Foreignness of Germs: The Persistent Association of Immigrants and Disease in American Society.” The Milbank Quarterly, vol. 80, no. 4, 2002, pp. 757–788. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3350445new window

Mirabal, Nancy Raquel, and Edwidge Danticat. “Dyasporic Appetites and Longings: An Interview with Edwidge Danticat.” Callaloo, vol. 30, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007, pp. 26–39, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30135860new window

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Morris, Bill. “Edwidge Danticat’s Small Moments of Joy.” Publishers Weekly, vol. 266, no. 41, Oct. 2019, p. (Sp)13.  https://themillions.com/2019/10/small-moments-of-joy-the-millions-interviews-edwidge-danticat.htmlnew window

Munro, Martin. Ed. Edwidge Danticat: A Reader’s Guide. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2010.

Philogene, Jerry. “Lenelle Moïse: Postscript, Swimming in the Waters of Endezo.” Contemporary French & Francophone Studies, vol. 19, no. 3, June 2015, pp. 335–345. https://doi.org/10.1080/17409292.2015.1028799new window

Pierce, Yolanda. “Restless Spirits: Syncretic Religion in Edwidge Danticat’s Breath, Eyes, Memory.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 3, no. 5, Jan. 2010, pp. 68–77.  http://www.jpanafrican.org/docs/vol3no5/3.5-6newRestless.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Raab, Josef. “Liberation and Lingering Trauma: U.S. Present and Haitian Past in Edwidge Danticat’s The Dew Breaker.” Politics and Cultures of Liberation: Media, Memory, and Projections of Democracy, edited by Hans Bak et al., vol. 7, Brill, LEIDEN; BOSTON, 2018, pp. 265–284. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1163/j.ctvbqs8h0.16new window

Rohrleitner, Marion Christina. “‘Breaking the Silence:’ Testimonio, Revisionary Historiography, and Survivor’s Guilt in Edwidge Danticat’s The Farming of Bones and The Dew Breaker.” Interdisciplinary Humanities, vol. 28, no. 1, Spring 2011, pp. 73–85.

Rossi, Jennifer C. “‘Let the Words Bring Wings to Our Feet:’ Negotiating Exile and Trauma through Narrative in Danticat’s ‘Breath, Eyes, Memory.’” Obsidian III, vol. 6/7, Board of Trustees of Illinois State University, 2005, pp. 203–20, http://www.jstor.org/stable/44511675new window

Samway, Patrick. “A Homeward Journey: Edwidge Danticat’s Fictional Landscapes, Mindscapes, Genescapes, and Signscapes in Breath, Eyes, Memory.” Mississippi Quarterly, vol. 57, no. 1, Winter 2003/2004 2003, pp. 75–84.

Smith, Robin L. "Danticat, Edwidge: Mama's Nightingale: A Story of Immigration and Separation." The Horn Book Guide, Spring 2016, p. 27.

Thompson, Mercedez L. “‘Here Comes the Dress’: Daily Resistance in Edwidge Danticat’s The Dew Breaker.” Gendered Violence and Human Rights in Black World Literature and Film, edited by Naomi Nkealah and Obioma Nnaemeka, Routledge, 2021, pp. 241–256.

Jean-Charles, Régine Michelle. “The Myth of Diaspora Exceptionalism: Wyclef Jean Performs ‘Jaspora.’” American Quarterly, vol. 66, no. 3, 2014, pp. 835–852., www.jstor.org/stable/43823433new window

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Olupona, Jacob and Terry Rey, editors. Orisa Devotion as World Religion: The Globalization of Yoruba Religious Culture.  University of Wisconsin Press, 2008.

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Bauer, Elaine and Paul Thompson. Jamaican Hands Across the Atlantic. Ian Randle Publishers, 2006.

Crosby, Emilye. “Ekwueme Michael Thelwell Oral History Interview.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 8, no. 9, Dec. 2015, pp. 161–232.  http://www.jpanafrican.org/docs/vol8no9/8.9-13-Emilye-Ekwueme.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Dargis, Manohla. “Struggle And Song Define A Life.” New York Times, vol. 161, no. 55649, 13 Jan. 2012, p. 1.  https://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/13/movies/sing-your-song-documentary-about-harry-belafonte-review.htmlnew window

“Desus Nice on Growing Up Jamaican American in the Bronx.” Fox 5 NY. 23 June, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DD7SFfJlgTInew window

Foner, Nancy. In a New Land: A Comparative View of Immigration. NYU Press, 2005.

Forsythe-Brown, I., Taylor, R.J., Chatters, L.M. et al. Kinship Support in Jamaican Families in the USA and Jamaica. Journal of African American Studies. vol. 21, no. 2, 187–202 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-017-9355-7new window

Gayle, Janette. “Moments of Cooperation and Incorporation: African American and African Jamaican Connections, 1782-1996. By Erna Brodber.” Journal of Social History, vol. 54, no. 3, Spring 2021, pp. 1001–1003.  doi:10.1093/jsh/shz121.

Hahamovitch, Cindy. No Man’s Land: Guestworkers in America and the Global History of Deportable Labor. Princeton University Press, 2013.

Jones, Terry-Ann. Jamaican Immigrants in the United States and Canada, Transnationalism, and Social Capital. LFB Scholarly Publishing, 2007.

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Price, Charles Reavis. “‘Cleave to the Black’: Expressions of Ethiopianism in Jamaica.” NWIG: New West Indian Guide / Nieuwe West-Indische Gids, vol. 77, no. 1/2, 2003, pp. 31–64. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41850227new window

Sheridan, Mary Beth. Many Jamaicans Find Transition Easy in DC.” Washington Post. 6 Feb. 2003. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/2003/02/06/many-jamaicans-find-transition-easy-in-dc/69c7eaeb-9b48-44c9-96a4-ced364e140f9/new window

Thabiti Asukile. “JOEL AUGUSTUS ROGERS: BLACK INTERNATIONAL JOURNALISM, ARCHIVAL RESEARCH, AND BLACK PRINT CULTURE.” The Journal of African American History, vol. 95, no. 3–4, Association for the Study of African American Life and History, 2010, pp. 322–47, https://doi.org/10.5323/jafriamerhist.95.3-4.0322new window

Williams, Jasmin K. “Joel Augustus Rogers: A Tireless Champion of African History.” New York Amsterdam News, vol. 103, no. 40, 4 Oct. 2012, p. 28. https://amsterdamnews.com/news/2013/06/13/amsterdam-news-in-the-classroom-joel-augustus/new window

Buddington, Steve A. “Acculturation, Psychological Adjustment (Stress, Depression, Self-Esteem) and the Academic Achievement of Jamaican Immigrant College Students.” International Social Work, vol. 45, no. 4, Oct. 2002, p. 447. https://doi.org/10.1177/00208728020450040401new window

Kirkwood, Toni Fuss. “Jamaican Students of Color in the American Classroom: Problems and Possibilities in Education.” Intercultural Education, vol. 13, no. 3, Sept. 2002, pp. 305–313.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1467598022000008378new window

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Taylor, Jack. “Language, Race, and Identity in Adichie’s Americanah and Bulowayo’s We Need New Names.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 50, no. 2, 2019, pp. 68–85.  doi:10.2979/reseafrilite.50.2.06.

Tunca, Daria. Conversations with Chimimanda Ngozie Adichie. Jackson, University of Mississippi Press, 2020.

Tunca, Daria, and Bénédicte Ledent. “The Power of a Singular Story: Narrating Africa and Its Diasporas.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 46, no. 4, Indiana University Press, 2015, pp. 1–9, https://doi.org/10.2979/reseafrilite.46.4.1new window

Tunca, Daria. "Of French Fries and Cookies: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Diasporic Short Fiction." Présence africaine en Europe et au-delà = African Presence in Europe and Beyond, edited by Kathleen Gyssels and Bénédicte Ledent, Harmattan, 2010, pp. 291-309. https://orbi.uliege.be/bitstream/2268/33339/1/Tunca_Adichie_African.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Okigbo, Austin C. “‘Ahịajiọkụ’ in Chicago: Festival, Music, and the Performance of Nigerian Igbo Identity in a North American City.” The World of Music, vol. 4, no. 2, 2015, pp. 99–118. New Series, www.jstor.org/stable/43774596new window

Okigbo, Austin C. “Introduction: Music and New African Diasporas in North America.” The World of Music, vol. 4, no. 2, [Florian Noetzel GmbH Verlag, VWB - Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung, Bärenreiter, Schott Music GmbH & Co. KG], 2015, pp. 7–13, http://www.jstor.org/stable/43774591new window

Stewart, Alexander. “Make It Funky: Fela Kuti, James Brown and the Invention of Afrobeat.” American Studies, vol. 52, no. 4, Mid-America American Studies Association, 2013, pp. 99–118, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24589271new window

Strong, Krystal, and Shaun Ossei-Owusu. “Naija Boy Remix: Afroexploitation and the New Media Creative Economies of Cosmopolitan African Youth.” Journal of African Cultural Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, 2014, pp. 189–205. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24758421new window

Films

Africans in America: The Unfolding of Ethnic Identity


Interviews with two generations of families emigrated from Ghana, Uganda, Ethiopia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, now living in the Denver area to explore the dynamic process that is ethnic identity. The interviews reveal the hopes of the first generation for the second, the thoughts and feelings of both parents and children on cultural transition, their sense of self as they live in America and interact with others, and their pride in adding to the rich national tapestry.

Black N Black


Black N Black: A Documentary Exploring the Relationship between African Americans and African Immigrants 
Filmed in the US, Ghana, and Ivory Coast, this documentary attempts to elevate the connections between African Americans and African immigrants in the US.

Director: Zadi Zokou
Writer: Zadi Zokou

BOUND: Africans versus African Americans


Africans versus African Americans addresses the tension that exists between Africans and African Americans. AVAA uses personal testimonials to expose this rift, then takes us on a journey through the corridors of African and African American historical experiences as it illuminates the moments that divide and those that bind Africans and African Americans.

Director: Peres Owino
Writer: Peres Owino

Breaking Big, Episode 6: Roxane Gay


See how Gay, child of Haitian immigrants, transcended expectations to become a leading voice in the feminist movement. How did she convert a painful childhood into a career that helped women around the world?

Brooklyn Shakara


Everything is going perfectly for a Nigerian immigrant with his promotion and girlfriend until his father refuses to let her marry outside their tribe and his boss puts a condition on the promotion that will jeopardize the wedding if it does happen. 1 pilot produced.

Series Directed by  Femi Agbayewa  Series
Writing Credits  Femi Agbayewa

Culture Clash


Interviews with second-generation Jamaican immigrants expose the challenges of holding on to their family’s heritage while embracing American culture.

Director: Jean-Rene Rinvil
Writer: Jean-Rene Rinvil

Edwidge Danticat on the Struggle of Haitian Immigrants


Haitian-American author Edwidge Danticat discusses the immigrant struggle for a sense of belonging and why Americans don't get a chance to hear about the Haiti that exists beyond the stereotypes and traumas of big news stories.

A Fire Within


Three women who fled the “Red Terror” in 1970s Ethiopia run into one of their torturers at their job in Atlanta and seek justice. 

Director: Christopher Chambers
Writer: Christopher Chambers

God's Own Country


A young lawyer leaves Lagos, Nigeria in search of the American Dream but finds out the US is not how he thought it would be.

Director: Femi Agbayewa
Writer: Femi Agbayewa

Haitian Corner


Joseph flees seven years in prison during Baby Doc Duvalier’s brutal regime in Haiti, but in New York, all he thinks about is getting justice for the suffering he endured. 

Director: Raoul Peck
Writer: Raoul Peck

Lambadina


During the Derg regime in Ethiopia, young Joseph loses his father and the love of his life. Once settled and a resident of Los Angeles, Joseph tries to find the woman he loved in his youth. 

Director: Messay Getahun
Writer: Messay Getahun

Luce


An American couple idealize their son adopted from war-torn Eritrea, until a teacher makes an alarming discovery that threatens his status as a star student.

Director: Julius Onah
Writer: J.C. Lee 

Ludi


A hardworking nurse in Miami’s Little Haiti, Ludi struggles to live her American Dream.

Director: Edson Jean
Writer: Edson Jean and Joshua Jean-Baptiste

A Miami Love Story


A Romeo and Juliet story that dramatizes the differences between the Dominican and Haitian communities in Miami. 

Director: Blademil Grullon
Writer: Blademil Grullon and Max Gabriel

Mother of George


A Nigerian couple living in Brooklyn are having trouble conceiving a child, a problem that defies cultural expectations and almost destroys the husband’s family and the marriage.

Director: Andrew Dosunmu
Writer: Darci Picoult

Nigerian Prince


After being sent to Nigeria against his will, a Nigerian-American teenager hates his mother’s country and rebels by joining forces with an Internet scammer in order to make money to return to the US.

Director: Faraday Okoro
Writers: Faraday Okoro, Andrew Long

Residue


A young filmmaker returns home to Washington, DC, after many years away, to write a script about his childhood, only to find his neighborhood unrecognizable and his childhood friends being scattered to the wind.

Director:  Merawi Gerima
Writer: Merawi Gerima

Restless City


A Nigerian immigrant surviving on the fringes of New York City tries to pursue his music and romantic passions. 

Director: Andrew Dosunmu
Writer: Eugene M. Gussenhoven

A Rooster on the Fire Escape


A story of love, family and secrets set against the backdrop of the Haitian community in New York in the tumultuous 1970's.

Director: Guetty Felin
Writer: Guetty Felin

Sankofa


A Black American fashion model on a photo shoot at Elmina Castle in Ghana is spiritually transported back to a plantation in Louisiana where she experiences first-hand the physical and sexual trauma of slavery.

Director: Haile Gerima
Writer: Haile Gerima 

Stones in the Sun


Increasing political violence drive a young couple, two sisters, and a father and son from Haiti to New York, where they confront the truths of their interlocked pasts.

Director: Patricia Benoit
Writer: Patricia Benoit

Two Worlds: Blood Bound


Phil learns that he wasn’t an orphan when he was adopted, and he tries to uncover the corruption behind international adoption in Ethiopia and the United States.

Director: Gebrehiwot Cherkos
Writer: Petros Dejene

Woven


Ethiopian-born Elenie struggles to integrate her mother's traditions with her own American dreams. A tragic accident forces mother and daughter to reconcile their different sense of place in the US.

Directors: Nagwa Ibrahim, Salome Mulugeta
Writers: Ryan Spahn, Salome Mulugeta

Literature

Meron Hadero
Meron Hadero

A Down Home Meal for These Difficult Times. Seattle: Restless Books, 2022.
http://www.meronhadero.com/


Dinaw Mengestu
Dinaw Mengestu

Maaza Mengiste
Maaza Mengiste
  • Beneath the Lion’s Gaze. WW Norton, 2011.
  • “Moments of Redemption. (Cover Story).” World Literature Today, vol. 88, no. 2, Mar. 2014, pp. 45–51. 
  • “Creative Writing as Translation.” Callaloo, vol. 35, no. 4, Fall 2012, pp. 938–942. 
  • “A New ‘Tizita.’” Callaloo, vol. 34, no. 3, Summer 2011, pp. 853–856.
  • The Shadow King. WW Norton, 2019.
  • “This Is What the Journey Does.” NYBooks.com. The New York Review of Books. 17 May 2018.

Mahtem Shiferaw
Mahtem Shiferaw
  • Fuschia. University of Nebraska Press, 2016.
  • Your Body Is War. University of Nebraska Press, 2019.
  • Behind Walls and Glass. Finishing Line Press, 2016.

Nafkote Tamirat
Nafkote Tamirat

The Parking Lot Attendant. Henry Holt and Co., 2018.

Alexis Arthurs
Alexis Arthurs

How To Love a Jamaican. Macmillan, 2018.


Nicole Dennis-Benn
Nicole Dennis-Benn

https://www.nicoledennisbenn.com/new window 

  • Here Comes the Sun. Liveright, 2016.
  • Patsy. Liveright, 2019.

Staceyann Chinn
Staceyann Chinn

https://www.facebook.com/staceyannchin/new window 

  • Crossfire: A Litany for Survival. Haymarket, 2019.
  • The Other Side of Paradise: A Memoir. Scribner, 2010.

Michelle Cliff
Michelle Cliff
  • Everything Is Now: New and Collected Stories. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2009.
  • No Telephone To Heaven. New York, Plume, 2006.
  • If I Could Write This In Fire. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2008.
  • Free Enterprise: A Novel of Mary Ellen Pleasant. San Francisco, City Lights, 2004.

Thomas Glave
Thomas Glave
  • Whose Song? And Other Stories. City Lights, 2000.
  • Among the Bloodpeople: Politics and Flesh. New York, Akashic Books, 2013.
  • Words To Our Now: Imagination and Dissent. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2005.

Marlon James
Marlon James

 http://marlonjameswriter.com/new window
 “Smaller, and Smaller, and Smaller.” Facebook. 17 June 2017.


Shara McCallum
Shara McCallum
  • Song of Thieves. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003.
  • Water Between Us. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999. 
Edwidge Danticat
Edwidge Danticat
  • Breath, Eyes, Memory. SoHo Press, 2015.
  • The Dew Breaker. Vintage, 2005.
  • The Butterfly’s Way: Voices from the Haitian Dyaspora in the United States. SoHo Press, 2003.

Roxanne Gay
Roxanne Gay

 http://www.roxanegay.com/new window

  • AYITI. Grove Press, 2018.
  • An Untamed State. New York, Grove Press, 2014.

Danielle LeGros Georges
Danielle LeGros Georges
  • The Dear Remote Nearness of You. Barrow Street Press, 2016.
  • Maroon. Curbstone Books, 2001.

Jean Deny Joachim
Jean Deny Joachim

http://jeandanyjoachim.com/new window
Crossroads/Chimenkwaze: Poems/Powem. CreateSpace, 2013.


Lenelle Moise
Lenelle Moise

https://www.lenellemoise.com/new window
Haiti Glass. City Lights, 2014.


Assoto Saint
Assoto Saint
  • Wishing for Wings: Poems. New York, Galiens, 1994.
  • Spells of a Voodoo Doll: The Poems, Fiction, Essays, and Plays of Assoto Saint. New York, Masquerade Books, 1996.

Patrick Sylvain
Patrick Sylvain

Underworlds. Central Square Press, 2018.


Gina Ulysse
Gina Ulysse

https://ginaathenaulysse.com/new window 
Athena. “Little Gina’s Rememory #2: An Soudin (In Secret).” Feminist Studies, vol. 36, no. 1, Spring 2010, pp. 174–179.  

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
  • Americanah. New York, Anchor, 2014.
  • “My Mother, the Crazy African.” https://www.athenscsd.org/userfiles/37/Classes/970/my_mother__the_crazy_african_by_chimamanda_ngozi_adichie.pdf?id=2266  
  • “You in America.” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/18658761-you-in-americanew window 
  • “Real Food.” New Yorker, vol. 83, no. 26, Sept. 2007, p. 92. 
  • “My American Jon.” Conjunctions, no. 48, 2007, pp. 231-240. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24516780new window

Teju Cole
Teju Cole
  • Known and Strange Things. New York, Random House, 2016.
  • Every Day Is For The Thief. New York, Random House, 2015.
  • Open City. New York, Random House, 2012

Tope Folarin
Tope Folarin
  • “The Summer of Ice Cream.” Virginia Quarterly Review, vol. 90, no. 4, Fall 2014, pp.137–151. 
  • A Particular Kind of Black Man: A Novel. New York, Simon and Schuster, 2019.

Julie Iromuanya
Julie Iromuanya

Mr. and Mrs. Doctor. Minneapolis, Coffee House Press, 2015.


Uzodinma Iweala
Uzodinma Iweala

Speak No Evil. New York, Harper, 2018.


EC Osondu
EC Osondu
  • Alien Stories. Rochester, NY, BOA, 2021.
  • Voice of America: Stories. New York, Harper, 2010.

Recommended and Related Readings by Day and Event

Recommended and Related Readings by Day and Event (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)
The readings below offer more in-depth discussions of the topics covered during the Institute. Participants can use them as resources for syllabus and assignment creation or for research.  

Baumann, Martin. “Diaspora: Genealogies of Semantics and Transcultural Comparison.” Numen: International Review for the History of Religions, vol. 47, no. 3, July 2000, pp. 313–337. 

Byfield, Judith. “Introduction: Rethinking the African Diaspora.” African Studies Review, vol. 43, no. 1, 2000, pp. 1–9. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/524718new window

Gomez, Michael A. "Migration in the African Diaspora." Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, edited by Colin A. Palmer, 2nd ed., vol. 4, Macmillan Reference USA, 2006, pp. 1433-1440. Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3444700842/GVRLu=rock77357&sid=GVRL&xid=470b55cf. Accessed 31 Jan. 2021.

Grossman, Jonathan. “Toward a Definition of Diaspora.” Ethnic & Racial Studies, vol. 42, no. 8, June 2019, pp. 1263–1282. 

Heller, Scott. “African Diaspora Studies: Reconceptualizing Experiences of Blacks Worldwide.” Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. 38, no. 39, 3 June 1992, p. A8. 

Heller, Scott.“Worldwide `diaspora’ of Peoples Poses New Challenges for Scholars.” Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. 38, no. 39, 3 June 1992, p. A7.

Khan, Aisha. “Material and Immaterial Bodies: Diaspora Studies and the Problem of Culture, Identity, and Race.” Small Axe: A Caribbean Journal of Criticism, vol. 19, no. 3, Nov. 2015, pp. 29–49. 

Kim, Sandra So Hee Chi. “Redefining Diaspora through a Phenomenology of Postmemory.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, vol. 16, no. 3, Winter 2007, pp. 337–352.

Lasky, Jack. “African Diaspora.” Salem Press Encyclopedia, 2017.

Swan, Quito. "Transnationalism." Keywords for African American Studies, Erica R. Edwards, et al., New York University Press, 1st edition, 2018. 

Swan, Quito. "Black Power Abroad." Black Power Encyclopedia: From "Black Is Beautiful" to Urban Uprisings, edited by Akinyele Umoja, et al., vol. 1, Greenwood, 2018, pp. 143-154. Movements of the American Mosaic. 

Veney, Cassandra R. “The Ties That Bind: The Historic African Diaspora and Africa.” African Issues, vol. 30, no. 1, 2002, pp. 3–8. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1167082new window

Walker, Sheila S. “Milestones and Arrows: A Cultural Anthropologist Discovers the Global African Diaspora.” The Journal of African American History, vol. 100, no. 3, Association for the Study of African American Life and History, 2015, pp. 494–521, https://doi.org/10.5323/jafriamerhist.100.3.0494new window

America Counts Staff/US Census. “Detailed Look at Sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Ancestry.” 21 Dec. 2017. https://census.gov/library/stories/2017/12/sub-saharan-caribbean-population.htmlnew window 

Anderson, Monica et al. A Rising Share of the U.S. Black Population Is Foreign Born. Pew Research Center, 2015. https://www.pewresearch.org/social-trends/2015/04/09/a-rising-share-of-the-u-s-black-population-is-foreign-born/new window

Anderson, Monica and Gustavo Lopez. “Key Facts about Black Immigrants in the U.S.” Fact Tank. Pew Research Center, 24 January 2018, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/01/24/key-facts-about-black-immigrants-in-the-u-s/new window

Anderson, Monica. “African Immigrant Population in the U.S. Steadily Climbs.” Fact Tank. Pew Research Center, 14 February 2017, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/02/14/african-immigrant-population-in-u-s-steadily-climbs/new window 

Capps, Randy, and Kristen McCabe and Michael Fix. Diverse Streams: African Migration to the United States. Migration Policy Institute. April 2012. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/CBI-african-migration-united-statesnew window

Echeverria-Estrada, Carlos and Jeanne Batalova. “Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States.” MPI. Migration Policy Institute, 6, Nov. 2019., https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/sub-saharan-african-immigrants-united-statesnew window

“The Ethiopian Diaspora in the United States.” Migration Policy Institute. July 2014.

Friedman, Samantha, et al. “Race, Immigrants, and Residence: A New Racial Geography of Washington, D.C.” Geographical Review, vol. 95, no. 2, 2005, pp. 210–230. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/30033988new window

Hamilton, Tod. Immigration and the Remaking of Black America. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 2019. 

Hernandez, Donald J. Changing Demography and Circumstances for Young Black Children in African and Caribbean Immigrant Families. Migration Policy Institute. April 2012. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/CBI-changing-demography-black-immigrant-childrennew window

In Motion: The African American Migration Experience. The Schomburg Center for Research on Black Culture. http://www.inmotionaame.org/new window 

New York Public Library Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture: Digital Schomburg. https://www.nypl.org/about/locations/schomburg/digital-schomburgnew window 

Select Diaspora Populations in the United States: Ethiopia, Haiti, Nigeria. Migration Policy Institute. July 2014. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/select-diaspora-populations-united-statesnew window

Washington, DC. “Facts on the District’s African Community.” Mayor’s Office on African Affairs. DC.Gov, https://oaa.dc.gov/page/facts-district%E2%80%99s-african-communitynew window

Washington, DC. “Local Demographics.” Mayor’s Office on African Affairs. DC.Gov, https://oaa.dc.gov/node/111192new window

Zong, Lie and Jeanne Batalova. “Caribbean Immigrants in the United States.” Migration Policy Institute. 13 Feb. 2019. https://www.migrationpolicyinstitute-europe.com/article/caribbean-immigrants-united-states-2009new window 

Adebajo, Adekeye. “Africa, African Americans, and the Avuncular Sam.” Africa Today, vol. 50, no. 3, 2004, pp. 93–110. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4187594new window

Afolayan, Tobi E., "Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States" (2011). Inquiry Journal. 1. https://scholars.unh.edu/inquiry_2011/1new window

Anyaduba, Chigbo A.  “Broadening the Canon: Africa and Its Non-Migrant Diasporas.” Critical Arts: A South-North Journal of Cultural & Media Studies, vol. 30, no. 4, Aug. 2016, pp. 43–57. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02560046.2016.1226728new window

Barrio-Vilar, Laura. “‘ALL O’WE IS ONE’? Migration, Citizenship, and Black Nativism in the Postcolonial Era.” Callaloo, vol. 37, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, pp. 89–111, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24264873new window

“Black Immigrants in the United States: Status, Challenges, and Impacts.” Boundless.com. Boundless Immigration, Inc. ND. https://www.boundless.com/research/black-immigrants-in-the-united-states-status-challenges-and-impacts/new window

Chikanda, Abel, and Julie Susanne Morris. “Assessing the Integration Outcomes of African Immigrants in the United States.” African Geographical Review, vol. 40, no. 1, Mar. 2021, pp. 1–18.  doi:10.1080/19376812.2020.1744455.

Gikandi, Halima. “’Much More Diverse Than People Think’: Black Immigrants Are Reshaping the Black Electorate.” The World and Public Radio International. 13 Oct. 2020. https://theworld.org/stories/2020-10-13/much-more-diverse-people-think-black-immigrants-are-reshaping-black-electoratenew window

Hall, Matthew. “Residential Integration on the New Frontier: Immigrant Segregation in Established and New Destinations.” Demography, vol. 50, no. 5, 2013, pp. 1873–1896. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/42919955new window

Jaret, Charles. “Troubled by Newcomers: Anti-Immigrant Attitudes and Action during Two Eras of Mass Immigration to the United States.” Journal of American Ethnic History, vol. 18, no. 3, 1999, pp. 9–39. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27502448new window

“Power of the Purse: The Contributions of Black Immigrants in the United States.” New American Research Fund. 19 March 2020. https://research.newamericaneconomy.org/report/black-immigrants-2020/new window

Rumbaut, Rubén G. “Origins and Destinies: Immigration to the United States Since World War II.” Sociological Forum, vol. 9, no. 4, 1994, pp. 583–621. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/685003new window

Saasa, Sherinah, and J. Lloyd Allen. “Social Exclusion among African Immigrants in the United States.” Social Work Research, vol. 45, no. 1, Mar. 2021, pp. 51–62.  doi:10.1093/swr/svaa022.

Saasa, Sherinah K. “Discrimination, Coping, and Social Exclusion among African Immigrants in the United States: A Moderation Analysis.” Social Work, vol. 64, no. 3, July 2019, pp. 198–206.  doi:10.1093/sw/swz018.

Tesfai, Rebbeca. “Immigration and the Remaking of Black America.” Sociological Forum, vol. 35, no. 1, Mar. 2020, pp. 253–257.  doi:10.1111/socf.12579.

Thomas, Kevin J A, and Ikubolajeh Logan. “African Female Immigration to the United States and Its Policy Implications.” Canadian Journal of African Studies vol. 46,1 (2012): 87-107. doi:10.1080/00083968.2012.659582. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4119759/new window

Thomas, Brian W. “Struggling with the Past: Some Views of African-American Identity.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology, vol. 6, no. 2, 2002, pp. 143–151. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20852996new window 

Waters, Mary C., et al. “Immigrants and African Americans.” Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 40, 2014, pp. 369–390., www.jstor.org/stable/43049540new window

West, Michael O. “Global Africa: The Emergence and Evolution of an Idea.” Review (Fernand Braudel Center), vol. 28, no. 1, 2005, pp. 85–108. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40241620new window

Africans in America: The Unfolding of Ethnic Identity. Dir. Mary Ann Watson. Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 2004.


Recommended Reading

Byfield, Judith, Ed. Gendering the African Diaspora: Women, Culture, and Historical Change in the Caribbean and Nigerian Hinterland. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 2010.


Allen, Andrea, et al. “Earthquake Impact on Miami Haitian Americans: The Role of Family/Social Connectedness.” Journal of Loss & Trauma, vol. 17, no. 4, July 2012, pp. 337–349. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2011.635577new window

Belizaire, Lonette S., and Jairo N. Fuertes. “Attachment, Coping, Acculturative Stress, and Quality of Life Among Haitian Immigrants.” Journal of Counseling & Development, vol. 89, no. 1, Winter 2011, pp. 89–97.  DOI: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2011.tb00064.x https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-78649492741&doi=10.1002%2fj.15566678.2011.tb00064.x&partnerID=40&md5=7af5c5cf0a5c511582b1d45ff2c08ba8new window

Brezenski, Thomas F. “Lessons Learned? A Comparison of Modern State Immigration Laws and Past Federal Health Policy in the Stigmatization of Minority Groups in the United States.” Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (1947-2900), vol. 3, no. 3, Sept. 2011, pp. 25–37. 

Byrd, Brandon R. “‘To Start Something to Help These People’: African American Women and the Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 21, no. 2, 2015, pp. 154–180. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43741125new window

Cenatus, Alexandra, Ivanna Moreno, and Margarita Vargas-Betancourt. “The Haitian American Dream Timeline.” University of Florida Center for the Humanities and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. ND. https://exhibits.uflib.ufl.edu/HaitianAmericanDream/new window

Crichlow, Michaeline A. “Making Waves: (Dis)Placements, Entanglements, Mo(ve)Ments.” The Global South, vol. 6, no. 1, Indiana University Press, 2012, pp. 114–37, https://doi.org/10.2979/globalsouth.6.1.114new window

Daniels, Ron. “Haitians Helping Haitians on the Ground.” New York Amsterdam News, vol. 101, no. 8, 18 Feb. 2010, p. 13.

Edmonds, Kevin. “Haiti: Pushed Out and Pulled Away.” NACLA Report on the Americas, vol. 49, no. 4, Dec. 2017, pp. 398–401. https://doi.org/10.1080/10714839.2017.1409006new window

Etienne, Vadricka Y. “Keeping It in the Family: Cultural Socialization among Haitian American Families.” Current Sociology, July 2021, p. 1.  doi:10.1177/00113921211028634.

Fanning, Sara. Caribbean Crossing: African Americans and the Haitian Emigration Movement. NYU Press, 2015. 

“From Douglass to Duvalier: U.S. African Americans, Haiti, and Pan Americanism, 1870-1964.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 4, no. 3, Mar. 2011, p. 178. https://doi.org/10.1093/jahist/jas069new window

Holden, Stephen. “The Old Country Never Goes Away.” New York Times, vol. 164, no. 56692, 21 Nov. 2014, p. C6.  https://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/21/movies/haitian-diaspora-in-stones-in-the-sun.htmlnew window

Ioanide, Paula. “The Story of Abner Louima: Cultural Fantasies, Gendered Racial Violence, and the Ethical Witness.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 13, no. 1, 2007, pp. 4–26. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41715340new window

Jackson, Regine O. Ed. Geographies of the Haitian Diaspora. New York, Routledge, 2011.

Jervis, Rick. “New Orleans, Haiti Linked by History and Tragedy.” USA Today.  https://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2010-01-28-Haiti-New-Orleans-connection_N.htmnew window

Johnson, Violet Showers. “When Blackness Stings: African and Afro-Caribbean Immigrants, Race, and Racism in Late Twentieth-Century America.” Journal of American Ethnic History, vol. 36, no. 1, [University of Illinois Press, Immigration & Ethnic History Society], 2016, pp. 31–62, https://doi.org/10.5406/jamerethnhist.36.1.0031new window

Markel, Howard, and Alexandra Minna Stern. “The Foreignness of Germs: The Persistent Association of Immigrants and Disease in American Society.” The Milbank Quarterly, vol. 80, no. 4, 2002, pp. 757–788. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3350445new window

O'Brien, Colleen C. “Paternal Solicitude and Haitian Emigration: The First American Occupation?” South Central Review, vol. 30, no. 1, 2013, pp. 32–54., www.jstor.org/stable/44016817new window

Olsen-Medina, Kira, and Jeanne Batalova. “Haitian Immigrants in the United States.” Migration Policy Institute. 12 Aug. 2020. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/haitian-immigrants-united-states-2018new window

Pamphile, Leon. Haitians and African-Americans: A Legacy of Tragedy and Hope. Miami, University of Florida Press, 2001. 

Persaud, Felicia. “How Some of Haiti’s Elite Helped Screw 50,000 of Their Own.” New York Amsterdam News, vol. 108, no. 22, June 2017, p. http://www.haitian-truth.org/how-some-of-haiti%E2%80%99s-elite-helped-screw-50000-of-their-own/new window

Pierre, Beaudelaine. You May Have the Suitcase Now. Minneapolis, New Rivers Press, 2021.

Pierre-Louis, François. “A Long Journey from Protest to Incorporation: The Political Development of Haitians in New York City.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, 2011, pp. 52–72. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41715433new window

Richman, Karen. “Male Migration, Female Perdition: Narratives of Economic and Reproductive Impotence in a Haitian Transnational Community.” Anthropologica, vol. 54, no. 2, 2012, pp. 189–197. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24467401new window

Robinson, Randall. “The Unwelcome Mat.” Ebony, vol. 65, no. 10, Aug, 2010, pp. 68–69.  

Schulz, Jennifer and Jeanne Batalova. “Haitian Immigrants in the United States.” Migration Policy Institute. 2 Aug. 2017. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/haitian-immigrants-united-statesnew window

Unaeze, Felix Eme, and Richard E. Perrin. "Haitian Americans." Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, edited by Thomas Riggs, 3rd ed., vol. 2, Gale, 2014, pp. 305-316.

Vanderkoov, Patricia N. "Life pathways of Haitian-American Young Adults in South Florida." Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 5, no. 1, 2012, p. 283 https://doi.org/10.25148/ETD.FI11042709new window

Wah, Tatiana, and François Pierre-Louis. “Evolution of Haitian Immigrant Organizations & Community Development in New York City.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, 2004, pp. 146–164. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41715241new window

Wiltz, Teresa. “Haitian-Americans Come Of Age Politically.” Pew Charitable Trusts. 20 July 2015. https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2015/07/20/haitian-americans-come-of-age-politicallynew window


Diaspora

Bartnett, Erin. “Roxane Gay on the Trauma and Triumph of the Haitian Diaspora.” ElectricLiterature.com. Electric Lit. 28 August 2018. https://electricliterature.com/roxane-gay-on-the-trauma-and-triumph-of-the-haitian-diaspora/new window

Catanese, Anthony. Haitians; Migration and Diaspora. New York, Routledge, 2019.

Laguerre, Michel. Diaspora, Politics, and Globalization. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.


Haitian Revolution + American Civil War

Clavin, Mathew. Toussaint Louverture and the American Civil War. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.

Hurst, Alfred. Haiti’s Influence on Antebellum America: Slumbering Volcano in the Caribbean. LSU Press, 2006.

Kachun, Mitch. “Antebellum African Americans, Public Commemoration, and the Haitian Revolution: A Problem of Historical Mythmaking.” Journal of the Early Republic, vol. 26, no. 2, 2006, pp. 249–273. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/30043409new window

Jackson, Maurice. “‘Friends of the Negro! Fly with Me, The Path Is Open to the Sea’: Remembering the Haitian Revolution in the History, Music, and Culture of the African American People.” Early American Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, 2008, pp. 59–103. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23546567new window

Jackson, Maurice and Jacqueline Bacon. African Americans and the Haitian Revolution: Selected Essays and Historical Documents. Routledge, 2013.

Reid, Patricia A. “The Haitian Revolution, Black Petitioners and Refugee Widows in Maryland, 1796-1820.” The American Journal of Legal History, vol. 50, no. 4, 2008, pp. 431–452. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25734136new window

Shilliam, Robert. “What the Haitian Revolution Might Tell Us about Development, Security, and the Politics of Race.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 50, no. 3, 2008, pp. 778–808. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27563698new window


Identity

Bachay, Judith. “Ethnic Identity Development and Urban Haitian Adolescents.” Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, vol. 26, no. 2, Apr. 1998, pp. 96–109. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.1998.tb00190.xnew window

Brodwin, Paul. “Marginality and Subjectivity in the Haitian Diaspora.” Anthropological Quarterly, vol. 76, no. 3, 2003, pp. 383–410. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3318182new window

Clerge, Orly. “Balancing Stigma and Status: Racial and Class Identities among Middle-Class Haitian Youth.” Ethnic & Racial Studies, vol. 37, no. 6, June 2014, pp. 958–977. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2012.748209new window

Etienne, Vadricka Y. “Rather Be Known as Haitian: Identity Construction of the Ethnically-Identified Second Generation.” Ethnic & Racial Studies, vol. 43, no. 12, Sept. 2020, pp. 2158–2175. doi:10.1080/01419870.2019.1677927.


Language

Berotte, Joseph, Carole.  Haitians in the U.S.: Language, Politics, and Education.” The Haitian Creole Language: History, Structure, Use and Education, edited by Arthur K. Spears and Carole M. Berotte Joseph, Lexington Book, 2010, pp. 229-248.

Cerat, Marie Lily. “Myths and Realities: A History of Haitian Creole Language Programs in New York City.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, 2011, pp. 73–91. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41715434new window

Degraff, Michel. “Creole Exceptionalism and the (Mis)Education of the Creole Speaker.” The Languages of Africa and the Diaspora,  edited by Jo Anne Kleifgen and George C. Bond, Multilingual Matters, 2009. http://lingphil.mit.edu/papers/degraff/degraff2009creole_exceptionalism_and_the_mis_education_of_the_creole_speaker.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Degraff, Michel. “Forward: Against Apartheid in Education and in Linguistics: The Case of Haitian Creole in Neo-Colonial Haiti.” Decolonizing Foreign Language Education: The Misteaching of English and Other Colonial Languages, edited by Donald Macedo, Routledge, 2019. http://lingphil.scripts.mit.edu/papers/degraff/DeGraff_2019_Against_Apartheid_in_Haiti.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Dejean, Yves.  “Creole and Education in Haiti.”  The Haitian Creole Language: History, Structure, Use and Education, edited by Arthur K. Spears and Carole M. Berotte Joseph, Lexington Book, 2010, pp. 199-216.

Fouron, Georges E.  “The History of Haiti in Brief.”  The Haitian Creole Language: History, Structure, Use and Education, edited by Arthur K. Spears and Carole M. Berotte Joseph, Lexington Book, 2010, pp. 23-54.

Robertshaw, Matthew. “Occupying Creole: The Crisis of Language under the US Occupation of Haiti.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 24, no. 1, Center for Black Studies Research, 2018, pp. 4–24, https://www.jstor.org/stable/26527976new window

Spears, Arthur.  “Introduction: The Haitian Creole Language.” The Haitian Creole Language: History, Structure, Use and Education, edited by Arthur K. Spears and Carole M. Berotte Joseph, Lexington Book, 2010, pp. 1-22.

Spears, Arthur and Berotte Joseph, Carole, editors. The Haitian Creole Language: History, Structure, Use, and Education. Lexington Books, 2010.

St. Fort, Hughes.  “Creole-English Code- Switching in New York City.”  The Haitian Creole Language: History, Structure, Use and Education, edited by Arthur K. Spears and Carole M. Berotte Joseph, Lexington Book, 2010, pp. 131-152.

Zephir, Flore.  “The Languages of Haiti and the Diaspora.” The Haitian Creole Language: History, Structure, Use and Education, edited by Arthur K. Spears and Carole M. Berotte Joseph, Lexington Book, 2010, pp. 55-82.


Religion

Brodwin, Paul. “Pentecostalism in Translation: Religion and the Production of Community in the Haitian Diaspora.” American Ethnologist, vol. 30, no. 1, 2003, pp. 85–101. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3805210new window

Hurbron, Laennec. “Globalization and the Evolution of Haitian Vodou.” Translated by Terry Rey. Orisa Devotion as World Religion: The Globalization of Yoruba Religious Culture, edited by Jacob Olupona and Terry Rey, University of Wisconsin Press, 2008, pp. 263-277. 

Mooney, Margarita A. “Religion as A Context of Reception: The Case of Haitian Immigrants in Miami, Montreal and Paris.” International Migration, vol. 51, no. 3, June 2013, pp. 99–112. https://doi.org/10.1111/imig.12073new window

Nicolas, Guerda, et al. “A Descriptive Evaluation of Religiosity among Haitian Immigrants: An Empirical Study.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 13, no. 2, 2007, pp. 60–72. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41715357new window

Olupona, Jacob and Terry Rey. “Introduction.” Orisa Devotion as World Religion: The Globalization of Yoruba Religious Culture, edited by Jacob Olupona and Terry Rey, University of Wisconsin Press, 2008, pp. 3-28.

Olupona, Jacob and Terry Rey, editors. Orisa Devotion as World Religion: The Globalization of Yoruba Religious Culture.  University of Wisconsin Press, 2008.

Yai, Olabiyi Babalola. “Yoruba Religion and Globalization: Some Reflections.” Orisa Devotion as World Religion: The Globalization of Yoruba Religious Culture, edited by Jacob Olupona and Terry Rey, University of Wisconsin Press, 2008, pp. 233-246.  

Breaking Big, Episode 6: Roxane Gay. PBS, 20 July 2018.
Edwidge Danticat: An Interview. PBS NewsHour Productions, 8 Apr. 2011.
No Passport Required: Miaminew window. Dir. Anna Chainew window,  Vox Medianew window, PBS, 2018.

Conner, Randy. Queering Creole Spiritual Traditions: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Participation in African-Inspired Traditions in the Americas. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Farley, Christopher John. “Reclaiming Jamaica’s Gay Past.” Advocate, no. 942, July 2005, pp. 50–51. 

Glave, Thomas. Ed. Our Caribbean: A Gathering of Lesbian and Gay Writing from the Antilles. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008.

Ramirez, Horacio N. Roque. “Introduction: Homoerotic, Lesbian, and Gay Ethnic and Immigrant Histories.” Journal of American Ethnic History, vol. 29, no. 4, 2010, pp. 5–21. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/jamerethnhist.29.4.0005new window

Augustin-Billy, Andia. “Ayiti Pa Lakay Ankò: Assotto Saint's Search for Home.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 22, no. 1, 2016, pp. 82–105., www.jstor.org/stable/24894148new window

Bartnett, Erin. “Roxane Gay on the Trauma and Triumph of the Haitian Diaspora.” ElectricLiterature.com. Electric Lit. 28 August 2018. https://electricliterature.com/roxane-gay-on-the-trauma-and-triumph-of-the-haitian-diaspora/new window

Boisseron, Benedicte. Creole Renegades: Rhetoric of Betrayal and Guilt in the Caribbean Diaspora. Tallahassee, FL: University Press of Florida, 2014.

Bost, Darius. “‘A VOICE DEMONIC AND PROUD’: SHIFTING THE GEOGRAPHIES OF BLAME IN ASSOTTO SAINT’S ‘SACRED LIFE: ART AND AIDS.’” AIDS and the Distribution of Crises, edited by Jih-Fei Cheng et al., Duke University Press, 2020, pp. 148–61, https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv11smg7x.12new window

Braziel, Jana. Artists, Performers, and Black Masculinity in the Haitian Diaspora. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.

Durban-Albrecht, Erin. “The Legacy of Assotto Saint: Tracing Transnational History from the Gay Haitian Diaspora.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 19, no. 1, 2013, pp. 235–256. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24344220new window

Gay, Roxane. “Love without Limits.” Essence, vol. 49, no. 4, Sept. 2018, pp. 82–83. 

Gay, Roxane, and John Freeman. “Roxane Gay.” BOMB, no. 128, New Art Publications, 2014, pp. 102–08, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24365894new window

Philogene, Jerry. “Lenelle Moïse: Postscript, Swimming in the Waters of Endezo.” Contemporary French & Francophone Studies, vol. 19, no. 3, June 2015, pp. 335–345. https://doi.org/10.1080/17409292.2015.1028799new window

Amideo, Emilio. Queer Tidalectics: Linguistic and Sexual Fluidity in Contemporary Black Diasporic Literature. Northwestern University Press, 2021.

Bauridl, Birgit M. “Contemporary ‘Black?" Performance Poetry.” Amerikastudien / American Studies, vol. 55, no. 4, 2010, pp. 715–724. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41158724new window

Chwala, Gregory Luke. “Ruins of Empire: Decolonial Queer Ecologies in Cliff’s No Telephone to Heaven.” ETropic, vol. 18, no. 1, 2019, pp. 141– 156.  doi:10.25120/etropic.18.1.2019.3690

Dennis-Benn, Nicole. "‘This Is No Paradise’: Author Explores the Side of Jamaica Tourists Don’t See."  Accessed 17 Jan. 2020. Originally published in All Things Considered, National Public Radio, 2016. https://www.npr.org/2016/07/04/484196246/this-is-no-paradise-author-explores-the-side-of-jamaica-tourists-dont-seenew window

Donahue, Jennifer Lynn. "Consuming the Caribbean: Tourism, Sex Tourism, and Land Development in Nicole Dennis-Benn's Here Comes the Sun." ARIEL, vol. 50, no. 2-3, 2019, p. 59-73.

Farley, Christopher John. “Reclaiming Jamaica’s Gay Past.” Advocate, no. 942, July 2005, pp. 50–51.  https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Reclaiming+Jamaica%27s+gay+past%3a+cross-dressing+pirate+heroes+and...-a0134170523new window

Glave, Thomas. “‘But What Kind of Nonsense Is That?’: ‘Callaloo’ and Diaspora.” Callaloo, vol. 30, no. 2, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007, pp. 594–600, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30129769new window

Glave, Thomas. “This Jamaican Family: The Word, and Dreams.” African American Review, vol. 42, no. 2, [Indiana State University, Saint Louis University, African American Review, African American Review (St. Louis University)], 2008, pp. 235–37, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40301208new window

Glave, Thomas. “Toward a Nobility of the Imagination: Jamaica’s Shame (An Open Letter to the People of Jamaica).” Words to Our Now: Imagination and Dissent, NED-New edition, University of Minnesota Press, 2005, pp. 18–22, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttt7gg.4new window

Guerrero, Desiree. “The Trauma of Leaving (Or Staying) Home.” Advocate, no. 1105, Oct. 2019, pp. 38–39.  https://www.thefreelibrary.com/THE+TRAUMA+OF+LEAVING+%28OR+STAYING%29+HOME%3a+Two+brilliant+queer+Black...-a0606080890new window

Hart, David W. "On behalf of Harry/Harriet: teaching Michelle Cliff's No Telephone to Heaven." Radical Teacher, Fall 2007, p. 43-47.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/20710429new window

JOSEPHS, KELLY BAKER. “Dissonant Desires: Staceyann Chin and the Queer Politics of a Jamaican Accent.” Mosaic: An Interdisciplinary Critical Journal, vol. 42, no. 2, University of Manitoba, 2009, pp. 153–70, http://www.jstor.org/stable/44030220new window

Moskin, Julia, and Kim Severson. “Jamaican Passions.” New York Times, vol. 154, no. 53281, 20 July 2005, pp. F1–F6.  https://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/20/dining/arts/jamaican-passions.htmlnew window

Murdoch, H. Adlai. “A Legacy of Trauma: Caribbean Slavery, Race, Class, and Contemporary Identity in ‘Abeng.’” Research in African Literatures, vol. 40, no. 4, Indiana University Press, 2009, pp. 65–88, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40468162new window

Rodriques, Janelle. “Women Loving Women in the Erotic-Pornographic Binary: Sex and Intimacy via Audre Lorde in Nicole Dennis-Benn’s Here Comes the Sun.” Journal of West Indian Literature, vol. 29, no. 2, Apr. 2021, pp. 62–73.

Smith, Charles Michael. "Queries of a 'Jamerican'." The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide, vol. 13, no. 4, 2006, p 9+.  https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1065912913475875new window

Tettenborn, Éva. “‘Will the Big Boys Finally Love You’: The Impossibility of Black Male Homoerotic Desire and the Taboo of Black Homosexual Solidarity in Thomas Glave’s ‘Whose Song?’” Callaloo, vol. 26, no. 3, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003, pp. 855–66, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3300730new window

Toland-Dix, Shirley. “Re-Negotiating Racial Identity: The Challenge of Migration and Return in Michelle Cliff’s ‘No Telephone to Heaven.’” Studies in the Literary Imagination, vol. 37, no. 2, Fall 2004, pp. 37–52. 


Bauer, Elaine and Paul Thompson. Jamaican Hands Across the Atlantic. Ian Randle Publishers, 2006.

Crosby, Emilye. “Ekwueme Michael Thelwell Oral History Interview.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 8, no. 9, Dec. 2015, pp. 161–232.  http://www.jpanafrican.org/docs/vol8no9/8.9-13-Emilye-Ekwueme.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Dargis, Manohla. “Struggle And Song Define A Life.” New York Times, vol. 161, no. 55649, 13 Jan. 2012, p. 1.  https://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/13/movies/sing-your-song-documentary-about-harry-belafonte-review.htmlnew window

“Desus Nice on Growing Up Jamaican American in the Bronx.” Fox 5 NY. 23 June, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DD7SFfJlgTInew window

Foner, Nancy. In a New Land: A Comparative View of Immigration. NYU Press, 2005.

Forsythe-Brown, I., Taylor, R.J., Chatters, L.M. et al. Kinship Support in Jamaican Families in the USA and Jamaica. Journal of African American Studies. vol. 21, no. 2, 187–202 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-017-9355-7new window

Gayle, Janette. “Moments of Cooperation and Incorporation: African American and African Jamaican Connections, 1782-1996. By Erna Brodber.” Journal of Social History, vol. 54, no. 3, Spring 2021, pp. 1001–1003.  doi:10.1093/jsh/shz121.

Hahamovitch, Cindy. No Man’s Land: Guestworkers in America and the Global History of Deportable Labor. Princeton University Press, 2013.

Jones, Terry-Ann. Jamaican Immigrants in the United States and Canada, Transnationalism, and Social Capital. LFB Scholarly Publishing, 2007.

Murell, N. Samuel. "Jamaican Americans." Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, edited by Thomas Riggs, 3rd ed., vol. 2, Gale, 2014, pp. 523-536.

Price, Charles Reavis. “‘Cleave to the Black’: Expressions of Ethiopianism in Jamaica.” NWIG: New West Indian Guide / Nieuwe West-Indische Gids, vol. 77, no. 1/2, 2003, pp. 31–64. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41850227new window

Sheridan, Mary Beth. Many Jamaicans Find Transition Easy in DC.” Washington Post. 6 Feb. 2003. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/2003/02/06/many-jamaicans-find-transition-easy-in-dc/69c7eaeb-9b48-44c9-96a4-ced364e140f9/new window

Thabiti Asukile. “JOEL AUGUSTUS ROGERS: BLACK INTERNATIONAL JOURNALISM, ARCHIVAL RESEARCH, AND BLACK PRINT CULTURE.” The Journal of African American History, vol. 95, no. 3–4, Association for the Study of African American Life and History, 2010, pp. 322–47, https://doi.org/10.5323/jafriamerhist.95.3-4.0322new window

Williams, Jasmin K. “Joel Augustus Rogers: A Tireless Champion of African History.” New York Amsterdam News, vol. 103, no. 40, 4 Oct. 2012, p. 28. https://amsterdamnews.com/news/2013/06/13/amsterdam-news-in-the-classroom-joel-augustus/new window

Identity

Adams, Jennifer. “Theorizing a Sense of Place in a Transnational Community.” Children, Youth and Environments, vol. 23, no. 3, University of Cincinnati, 2013, pp. 43–65, https://doi.org/10.7721/chilyoutenvi.23.3.0043new window

Brown, Tammy L. “‘A New Era in American Politics’: Shirley Chisholm and the Discourse of Identity.” Callaloo, vol. 31, no. 4, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008, pp. 1013–25, http://www.jstor.org/stable/27654956new window

Ferguson, Gail M., and Marc H. Bornstein. “Remote Acculturation: The ‘Americanization’ of Jamaican Islanders.” International Journal of Behavioral Development, vol. 36, no. 3, May 2012, pp. 167–177. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0165025412437066new window

Ferguson, Gail M., et al. “Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation Among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States.” Child Development, vol. 83, no. 5, Sept. 2012, pp. 1486–1493. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01787.xnew window

Hall, Maurice L. “Re-Constituting Place and Space: Culture and Communication in the Construction of a Jamaican Transnational Identity.” Howard Journal of Communications, vol. 21, no. 2, Apr. 2010, pp. 119–140. https://doi.org/10.1080/10646171003727425new window

Werth, Barry. “Caribbean Immigrants: A Different Shade of Black.” Utne Reader (87500256), no. 21, May 1987, p. 60.

Cokley, Kevin, et al. “College Access Improves for Black Students but for Which Ones?” The Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 97, no. 5, Phi Delta Kappa International, 2016, pp. 43–48, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24579777new window 

Diallo, Bintou. “African Immigrant Women Within the United States Educational System: A Sociocultural/Experiential Analysis.” (2015). Undergraduate Honors Theses. 764. https://scholar.colorado.edu/honr_theses/764new window

Eunyoung Kim. “Bicultural Socialization Experiences of Black Immigrant Students at a Predominantly White Institution.” The Journal of Negro Education, vol. 83, no. 4, Journal of Negro Education, 2014, pp. 580–94, https://doi.org/10.7709/jnegroeducation.83.4.0580new window

KIRAMBA, LYDIAH, and JAMES OLOO. “Identity Negotiation in Multilingual Contexts: A Narrative Inquiry Into Experiences of an African Immigrant High School Student.” Teachers College Record, vol. 122, no. 13, Oct. 2020, pp. 1–24.

Kirlew, Shauna M. Morgan. “Neocolonialism and Ethnic Gerrymandering in the North American Academy.” CLA Journal, vol. 60, no. 2, College Language Association, 2016, pp. 244–59, http://www.jstor.org/stable/26355920new window

Lash, Cristina L.  “Making Americans: Schooling, Diversity, and Assimilation in the Twenty-First Century.” RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, vol. 4, no. 5, 2018, pp. 99–117. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.7758/rsf.2018.4.5.05new window 

Manning, Patrick. “Education Across the African Diaspora, 1500–2020.” Peabody Journal of Education (0161956X), vol. 96, no. 2, Apr. 2021, pp. 125–134.  doi:10.1080/0161956X.2021.1905323.

Massey, Douglas S., et al. “Black Immigrants and Black Natives Attending Selective Colleges and Universities in the United States.” American Journal of Education, vol. 113, no. 2, 2007, pp. 243–271. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/510167new window

Myrick, Cecilia J. “Facilitating African Identity Development: Critical Literacy Books for African College Students.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 32, no. 4, Sage Publications, Inc., 2002, pp. 375–88, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3180881new window

NALUBEGA-BOOKER, KENDRA, and ARLETTE WILLIS. “Applying Critical Race Theory as a Tool for Examining the Literacies of Black Immigrant Youth.” Teachers College Record, vol. 122, no. 13, Oct. 2020, pp. 1–24. 

Shani, Serah. African Immigrant Families in the United States: Transnational Lives and Schooling. Lanham, MD, Lexington Books, 2018.

Wynn, Adrienne, Greg Wigan, Marcia Watson-Vandiver, and Annette Teasdale. Race, Class, Gender, and Immigrant Identities in Education: Perspectives from First and Second Generation Ethiopian Students. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2021.

Désir, Charlene. “Understanding the Sending Context of Haitian Immigrant Students.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 13, no. 2, 2007, pp. 73–93. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41715358new window

Buddington, Steve A. “Acculturation, Psychological Adjustment (Stress, Depression, Self-Esteem) and the Academic Achievement of Jamaican Immigrant College Students.” International Social Work, vol. 45, no. 4, Oct. 2002, p. 447. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1177/00208728020450040401new window

Kirkwood, Toni Fuss. “Jamaican Students of Color in the American Classroom: Problems and Possibilities in Education.” Intercultural Education, vol. 13, no. 3, Sept. 2002, pp. 305–313. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/1467598022000008378new window

Yearwood, Edilma L. “‘Growing Up’ Children: Current Child-Rearing Practices Among Immigrant Jamaican Families.” Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, vol. 14, no. 1, Jan. 2001, p. 7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6171.2001.tb00284.xnew window

Cokley, Kevin, et al. “College Access Improves for Black Students but for Which Ones?” The Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 97, no. 5, 2016, pp. 43–48., www.jstor.org/stable/24579777new window

Knight, Michelle G., and Vaughn W. M. Watson. “Toward Participatory Communal Citizenship: Rendering Visible the Civic Teaching, Learning, and Actions of African Immigrant Youth and Young Adults.” American Educational Research Journal, vol. 51, no. 3, [American Educational Research Association, Sage Publications, Inc.], 2014, pp. 539–66, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24546706new window

Roubeni, Sonia, et al. “‘If We Can’t Do It, Our Children Will Do It One Day’: A Qualitative Study of West African Immigrant Parents’ Losses and Educational Aspirations for Their Children.” American Educational Research Journal, vol. 52, no. 2, [American Educational Research Association, Sage Publications, Inc.], 2015, pp. 275–305, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24546755new window

Thomas, Kevin J.A. “Race and School Enrollment among the Children of African Immigrants in the United States.” International Migration Review, vol. 46, no. 1, 2012, pp. 37–60., www.jstor.org/stable/41428722new window 


National Museum of African American History and Culture: https://nmaahc.si.edu/visit/mapsnew window

Ako-Adjei, Naa Baako. “How Not to Write About Africa: African Cuisines in Food Writing.” Gastronomica, vol. 15, no. 1, 2015, pp. 44–55. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/gfc.2015.15.1.44new window

Bower, Anne. Ed. African American Foodways: Exploration of History and Culture. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2007.

Ray, Krishnendu. “The Immigrant Restaurateur and the American City: Taste, Toil, and the Politics of Inhabitation.” Social Research, vol. 81, no. 2, 2014, pp. 373–396. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/26549622new window

Renne, Elisha P. “Mass Producing Food Traditions for West Africans Abroad.” American Anthropologist, vol. 109, no. 4, 2007, pp. 616–625. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27563814new window

Spivey, Diane. “Transatlantic Food Migration: The African Culinary Influence on the Cuisine of the Americas. Blackpast.org. 23 December 2018. https://www.blackpast.org/global-african-history/perspectives-global-african-history/trans-atlantic-food-migration-the-african-culinary-influence-on-the-cuisine-of-the-americas/new window

Twitty, Michael. “The Unbearable Taste: Early African American Foodways.” Commonplace: The Journal of American Life, vol. 11, no. 3, 2001. http://commonplace.online/article/unbearable-taste-early-african-american-foodways/new window


Bindman, David, Ed. The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part II: The Rise of Black Artists. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014.
_____, Ed. The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part I: The Impact of Africa. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014.

Chancy, Myriam. Autocthonomies: Transnationalism, Testimony, and Transmission in the African Diaspora. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2020. 

Perez Art Museum Miami - “The Other Side of Now: Foresight in Contemporary Caribbean Art”: https://amlatina.contemporaryand.com/editorial/other-side-of-now-pamm/new window 

Smithsonian Museum of American Art: Art by African Americanshttps://americanart.si.edu/art/highlights/african-americannew window 

Smithsonian National Gallery of Art: African American Artists in the Collection - https://www.nga.gov/features/african-american-artists.html new window 

Smithsonian National Museum of African Art - https://africa.si.edu/new window  

Wainwright, Leon. “Americocentrism and Art of the Caribbean: Contours of a Time-Space Logic.” Journal of American studies vol. 47,2 (2013): 417-438.


Adi, Hakim. Pan-Africanism: A History. New York, Bloomsbury Academic, 2018.

Anyaduba, Chigbo A.  “Broadening the Canon: Africa and Its Non-Migrant Diasporas.” Critical Arts: A South-North Journal of Cultural & Media Studies, vol. 30, no. 4, Aug. 2016, pp. 43–57. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02560046.2016.1226728new window

Barrio-Vilar, Laura. “‘ALL O’WE IS ONE’? Migration, Citizenship, and Black Nativism in the Postcolonial Era.” Callaloo, vol. 37, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, pp. 89–111, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24264873new window

Collins, Patricia Hill. “New Commodities, New Consumers: Selling Blackness in a Global Marketplace.” Ethnicities, vol. 6, no. 3, 2006, pp. 297–317. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23889381new window

Germain, Felix. “A ‘New’ Black Nationalism in the USA and France.” Journal of African American Studies, vol. 18, no. 3, 2014, pp. 286–304 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-013-9269-ynew window

Habib, Jasmin. “Encounters and the Diasporic Art of Africa: An Interview with Allyson Purpura, Curator of African Art, Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois.” Anthropologica, vol. 56, no. 1, 2014, pp. 229–237. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24469653new window

Hadero, Haleluya. “Black Immigrants Find Camaraderie, Divide Amid Protests.” Associated Press News. 17 Oct. 2020. https://apnews.com/article/race-and-ethnicity-ghana-police-police-brutality-racial-injustice-641a5eeb2f47668c6f810e1f77317651

Hutchinson, George. “American Transnationalism and the Romance of Race.” Amerikastudien / American Studies, vol. 55, no. 4, 2010, pp. 687–697. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41158722new window

Okigbo, Austin C. “Introduction: Music and New African Diasporas in North America.” The World of Music, vol. 4, no. 2, 2015, pp. 7–13. New Series, www.jstor.org/stable/43774591new window

Ray, Krishnendu. “The Immigrant Restaurateur and the American City: Taste, Toil, and the Politics of Inhabitation.” Social Research, vol. 81, no. 2, 2014, pp. 373–396. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/26549622new window

Temple, Christel N. “Strategies for Cultural Renewal in an American-Based Version of African Globalism.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 36, no. 3, Sage Publications, Inc., 2006, pp. 301–17, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40035011new window

Identity

Adams, Cydney. “Not All Black People Are African American. Here’s the Difference.” CBSNews.com. 18 June 2020. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/not-all-black-people-are-african-american-what-is-the-difference/new window

Adida, Claire, and Amanda Robinson. “Becoming Black: Understanding Immigrant Resistance to Assimilation in the US.” Stanford University Workshop on Populism and Immigration. 2018.
https://fsi-live.s3.us-west-1.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/adida_stanfordpopulismconference_june2018_1.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Asante, Godfried Agyeman. “Becoming ‘Black’ in America: Exploring Racial Identity Development of African Immigrants.” 2012. Minnesota State University Theses. https://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1042&context=etdsnew window

Benson, Janel E. “Exploring the Racial Identities of Black Immigrants in the United States.” Sociological Forum, vol. 21, no. 2, [Wiley, Springer], 2006, pp. 219–47, http://www.jstor.org/stable/4540937new window

Chude-Sokei, Louis. “The Newly Black Americans.” Transition, no. 113, [Indiana University Press, Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University], 2014, pp. 52–71, https://doi.org/10.2979/transition.113.52new window

Clark, Msia Kibona. “Identity among First and Second Generation African Immigrants in the United States.” African Identities, vol. 6, no. 2, May 2008, pp. 169–181. DOI:10.1080/14725840801933999

Clerge, Orly. The New Noir: Race, Identity, and Diaspora in Black Suburbia. Berkeley, University of California Press, 2019.

Fila-Bakabadio, Sarah. “‘Pick Your Afro Daddy’: Neo Soul and the Making of Diasporan Identities.” Cahiers D'Études Africaines, vol. 54, no. 216, 2014, pp. 919–944. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24476189new window

Foerster, Amy. “Race, Identity, and Belonging: ‘Blackness’ and the Struggle for Solidarity in a Multiethnic Labor Union.” Social Problems, vol. 51, no. 3, 2004, pp. 386–409. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/sp.2004.51.3.386new window

Hume, Susan E. “Ethnic and National Identities of Africans in the United States.” Geographical Review, vol. 98, no. 4, 2008, pp. 496–512. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40377350new window

Iheduru, Obioma. “Social Values, Democracy, and the Problem of African American Identity.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 37, no. 2, Sage Publications, Inc., 2006, pp. 209–30, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40034411new window 

Johnson, Violet M. Showers. “‘What, Then, Is the African American?" African and Afro-Caribbean Identities in Black America.” Journal of American Ethnic History, vol. 28, no. 1, 2008, pp. 77–103. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27501883new window

Mocombe, Paul C. “The Negro, The ‘My Nigga,’ and The African.” Race, Gender & Class, vol. 23, no. 1–2, Jean Ait Belkhir, Race, Gender & Class Journal, 2016, pp. 46–60, https://www.jstor.org/stable/26529188new window 

Shaw-Taylor, Yoku. “The Changing Face of Black America.” Contexts, vol. 8, no. 4, 2009, pp. 62–63. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41960592new window 

Stockman, Farah. “’We’re Self-Interested’: The Growing Identity Debate in Black America.” The New York Times. 8 Nov. 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/08/us/slavery-black-immigrants-ados.html?.?mc=aud_dev&ad-keywords=auddevgate&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIi9qD_vHy8wIVCp2zCh1URQSlEAMYASAAEgK1NvD_BwE&gclsrc=aw.dsnew window

Storr, Juliette. “Décalage: A Thematic Interpretation of Cultural Differences in the African Diaspora.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 39, no. 5, 2009, pp. 665–688 https://doi.org/10.1177/0021934707299643new window

Thomas, Brian W. “Struggling With the Past: Some Views of African-American Identity.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology, vol. 6, no. 2, 2002, pp. 143–151. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20852996new window

Literature

Foster, Christopher. Conscripts of Migration: Neoliberal Globalization, Nationalism, and the New Literature of African Diasporas. Oxford, MS: University of Mississippi Press, 2019.

Ledent, Bénédicte, and Daria Tunca. “Introduction.” Transition, no. 113, [Indiana University Press, Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University], 2014, pp. 1–10, https://doi.org/10.2979/transition.113.1new window

Li, Stephanie. Pan African American Literature: Signifin(g) Immigrants in the Twenty first Century. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2018.


Adewale, Victoria, et al. “African-American and African Perspectives on Mental Health: A Pilot Study of the Pre and Post Colonial and Slavery Influences and Their Implications on Mental Health.” Journal of Communication in Healthcare, vol. 9, no. 2, July 2016, pp. 78–89. https://doi.org/10.1080/17538068.2016.1170316new window

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. “I Became Black in America.” JSTOR Daily. 29 August 2018. https://daily.jstor.org/chimamanda-ngozi-adichie-i-became-black-in-america/new window

Afolayan, Tobi E. “Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States.” Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), Spring 2011, pp. 6–11. https://scholars.unh.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1000&context=inquiry_2011new window

Akanle, Olayinka. “Kinship Support Orientations and Class Dynamics of Nigerian International Migrants.” International Review of Modern Sociology, vol. 38, no. 1, 2012, pp. 131–157. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43499873new window

Akpome, Aghogho. “What Is Nigeria? Unsettling the Myth of Exceptionalism.” Africa Spectrum, vol. 50, no. 1, 2015, pp. 65–78., www.jstor.org/stable/24589180new window

Amayo, Osagie Festus. “Dimensions of Challenging Parenting Practices: Nigerian Immigrants in the United States.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, Sept. 2009, pp. 83–101. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-50235-5_10new window

Brettell, Caroline B., and Kristoffer E. Alstatt. “The Agency of Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Biographies of the Self-Employed in Ethnic and Occupational Niches of the Urban Labor Market.” Journal of Anthropological Research, vol. 63, no. 3, 2007, pp. 383–397. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20479430new window

Easterly, William. “Development in a Time of Xenophobia.” Journal of International Affairs, 2017, pp. 41–51. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/44842599new window

Ette, Ezekiel Umo. Nigerian Immigrants in the United States: Race, Identity, and Acculturation. Lexington Books, 2011.

Fosco, Molly. “The Most Successful Ethnic Group in the US May Surprise You.” OZY.com. 7 June 2018.

Gaudio, Rudolf P. “The Blackness of ‘Broken English.’” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, vol. 21, no. 2, 2011, pp. 230–246., www.jstor.org/stable/43103050new window

Igiede, Anthony I. “Cultural Division among Diasporic Nigerians: A Systemic Dilemma.” Race, Gender & Class, vol. 20, no. 1/2, Jean Ait Belkhir, Race, Gender & Class Journal, 2013, pp. 344–52, http://www.jstor.org/stable/43496923new window

Jackson-Obot, Ima. “What Makes Nigerians in the Diaspora So Successful?” The Financial Times. 29 Oct. 2020. https://www.ft.com/content/ca39b445-442a-4845-a07c-0f5dae5f3460new window

Kalunta-Crumpton, Anita. “Intersections of Patriarchy, National Origin and Immigrant Nigerian Women’s Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence in the United States.” International Journal of Sociology of the Family, vol. 41, no. 1, 2015, pp. 1–29. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43488448new window

Ndeka, Nnena. “Acculturation: A Pilot Study on Nigerians in America and Their Coping Strategies.” SAGE. October-December 2013: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2158244013515687new window

“The Nigerian Diaspora in the United States.” Migration Policy Institute. June 2015. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/sites/default/files/publications/RAD-Nigeria.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Ogbuagu, Buster C. “We Who Are Strangers: Insights into How Diasporic Nigerians Experience Bereavement Loss.” Journal of African American Studies, vol. 16, no. 2, 2012, pp. 300–320.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-011-9187-9new window

Oyebamiji, Sunday Israel, and Abimbola Adekoye. “Nigerians’ Migration to the United States of America: A Contemporary Perspective.” Journal of African Foreign Affairs, vol. 6, no. 1, Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd, 2019, pp. 165–80, https://www.jstor.org/stable/26664092new window

Reynolds, Rachel R. “An African Brain Drain: Igbo Decisions to Immigrate to the US.” Review of African Political Economy, vol. 29, no. 92, 2002, pp. 273–284. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4006815new window

Ross, Michael L. “Ownership of Language: Diglossia in the Fiction of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 50, no. 1, Spring 2019, pp. 111–126.  doi:10.2979/reseafrilite.50.1.07.

Sakamoto, Arthur, et al. “The Socioeconomic Attainments of Second-Generation Nigerian and Other Black Americans: Evidence from the Current Population Survey, 2009 to 2019.” Socius, Jan. 2021, doi:10.1177/23780231211001971.

Sall, Dialika. “The Nigerian Second Generation.” Sociological Forum, vol. 34, no. 3, Sept. 2019, pp. 790–794.  doi:10.1111/socf.12532.

Sam, Monibo A. “Arranged Marriage: Change or Persistence? Illustrative Cases of Nigerians in the USA.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies, vol. 40, no. 5, 2009, pp. 739–757. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41604323new window

Sarkodie-Mensah, Kwasi. "Nigerian Americans." Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, edited by Thomas Riggs, 3rd ed., vol. 3, Gale, 2014, pp. 329-341.

Solomon, Salem. “Daughter of Nigerian Immigrants Hopes to Lead by Example in Minnesota Legislature.” Voice of America News. 21 Jan. 2021. https://www.voanews.com/a/usa_us-politics_daughter-nigerian-immigrants-hopes-lead-example-minnesota-legislature/6201049.htmlnew window

Strubel, Jessica. "Get Your Gele: Nigerian Dress, Diasporic Identity, and Translocalism." Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 4, no. 9, 2012, p. 24+.  https://www.jpanafrican.org/docs/vol4no9/4.9GetYourGele.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Thomas, Kevin J.A., and Ikubolajeh Logan. “African Female Immigration to the United States and Its Policy Implications.” Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines, vol. 46, no. 1, 2012, pp. 87–107. www.jstor.org/stable/43860322new window

Togunde, 'Dimeji R., and Sylvester O. Osagie. “Icons of Progress: Returnees' Effects on Decisions by Nigerians to Migrate to the Us.” International Review of Modern Sociology, vol. 35, no. 1, 2009, pp. 115–135. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41421341new window

Udobang, Wada. “Turning the Tide: A Conversation with Tope Folarin.” Rumpus, 2 March 2020. https://therumpus.net/2020/03/the-rumpus-interview-with-tope-folarin/new window

Warner, Cindy et al. “Living with Prejudice: Xenophobia and Race.” Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equity, no. 55, 2003, pp. 36–44. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4066297new window

Identity

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. “I Became Black in America.” JSTOR Daily. 29 August 2018. https://daily.jstor.org/chimamanda-ngozi-adichie-i-became-black-in-america/new window

Balogun, Oluwakemi M. “No Necessary Tradeoff: Context, Life Course, and Social Networks in the Identity Formation of Second-Generation Nigerians in the USA.” Ethnicities, vol. 11, no. 4, 2011, pp. 436–466. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23890709new window

De Walt, Patricks. S. “In Search of an Authentic African American and/or Black Identity: Perspectives of First Generation U.S.-Born Africans Attending a Predominantly White Institution.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 42, no. 3, 2011, pp. 479–503.  https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0021934710378748new window

Emeka, Amon. (2019) “Just Black” or Not “Just Black?” Ethnic Attrition in the Nigerian-American Second Generation, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 42:2, 272-290, DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2018.1427881

Hume, Susan E. “Ethnic and National Identities of Africans in the United States.” Geographical Review, vol. 98, no. 4, 2008, pp. 496–512. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40377350new window

Nwabara, Olaocha Nwadiuto. “Becoming Black and African: Nigerian Diasporic Transformations of Racial and Ethnic Identities in the United States.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 12, no. 1, Sept. 2018, pp. 70–96.  https://www.jpanafrican.org/docs/vol12no1/12.1-7-Nwabara%20%281%29.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Sacred Journeys: Osun-Osogbo. Dir. Bosie Vincent. PBS, 2014.


For discussion on literature

Amideo, Emilio. Queer Tidalectics: Linguistic and Sexual Fluidity in Contemporary Black Diasporic Literature. Northwestern University Press, 2021.

Foster, Christopher. Conscripts of Migration: Neoliberal Globalization, Nationalism, and the New Literature of African Diasporas. Oxford, MS: University of Mississippi Press, 2019.

Adebayo, Sakiru. “Dis/Ruptures of Home and Citizenship: Memory, Migration and the Production of Translocalities in Dinaw Mengestu’s Children of the Revolution.” Kairos: A Journal of Critical Symposium, vol. 4, no. 1, 2019, pp. 94–106.

Belcher, Wendy Laura. “FROM SHEBA THEY COME Medieval Ethiopian Myth, US Newspapers, and a Modern American Narrative.” Callaloo, vol. 33, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010, pp. 239–57, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40732813new window

Goyal, Yogita. “We Need New Diasporas.” Runaway Genres: The Global Afterlives of Slavery, edited by Yogita Goyal, New York University Press, 2019, pp. 171–210.

Haile, Getatchew. “Amharic Poetry of the Ethiopian Diaspora in America: A Sampler.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, vol. 15, no. 2/3, Fall/Winter2006 2006, pp. 321–339. DOI: 10.1353/dsp.2011.0069new window

Hamilton, Grant. “Aporia and Diaspora: the Unliveable Life in Dinaw Mengestu’s How to Read the Air,” Journal of the African Literature Association, 12:2 (2018), 153-165. 

Kiper, Dmitry. “Dinaw Mengestu.” Current Biography, vol. 76, no. 1, Apr. 2015, pp. 37–42.  

Ledent, Bénédicte. “Reconfiguring the African Diaspora in Dinaw Mengestu’s The Beautiful Things That Heaven Bears.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 46, no. 4, Indiana University Press, 2015, pp. 107–18, https://doi.org/10.2979/reseafrilite.46.4.107new window

Mengestu, Dinaw. “Lost and Found Identities in Dinaw Mengestu’s All Our Names. PBS.org/newshour. PBS. 14 May 2014. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/arts/moment-hope-lost-found-identities-namesnew window

Musila, Grace A. “The Afterlives of Slavery and the Narrative Pressures of Black Precarity in Dinaw Mengestu’s How to Read the Air.” Slavery & Abolition, vol. 41, no. 1, Mar. 2020, pp. 110–130.

Openda, Ruth Kwamboka. “Alienation and Estrangement in Dinaw Mengestu’s All Our Names.” Tydskrif Vir Letterkunde, vol. 58, no. 1, 2021, pp. 25–34.

Palmer, Jack. “Interview with Maaza Mengiste.” BombMagazine.org. BOMB. 11 January 2010. https://bombmagazine.org/articles/maaza-mengistenew window

Sbiri, Kamal. “Décalage and Borderscaping in Dinaw Mengestu’s The Beautiful Things That Heaven Bears.” Journal of the African Literature Association, vol. 15, no. 2, 2021, pp. 257–271.

Singer, Christoph. “The Camp as Extra-Temporal Space in E.C. Osondu’s ‘Waiting’ and Dinaw Mengestu’s ‘An Honest Exit.’” Timescapes of Waiting: Spaces of Stasis, Delay and Deferral, edited by Christoph Singer et al., Brill/Rodopi, 2019, pp. 94–107.

Tembo, Nick M. "Reframing Migrant Identities: Namelessness and Impersonation in Dinaw Mengestu's All Our Names." Literator: Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies, vol. 40, no. 1, 2019. DOI:10.4102/lit.v40i1.1581new window

Tembo, Nick Mdika. “Challenging Androcentric Conceptions of Nationalism: Reimagining Female Agency in Maaza Mengiste’s Beneath the Lion’s Gaze.” Scrutiny2: Issues in English Studies in Southern Africa, vol. 25, no. 3, 2020, pp. 24–35. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/18125441.2020.1780300.

Thomas, Steven W. “The Context of Multi-Ethnic Politics for Ethiopian American Literature.” MELUS: The Journal of the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States, vol. 45, no. 1, 2020, pp. 117–138.

Ulaby, Neda. “Ethiopian-American Artists Make Their Mark.” NPR.org. NPR. 13 March 2008. https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=7853032new window

Varvogli, A. (2017). Urban Mobility and Race: Dinaw Mengestu's The Beautiful Things That Heaven Bears and Teju Cole's Open City. Studies in American Fiction, 44(2), 235-257. https://doi.org/10.1353/saf.2017.0010new window

Woubshet, Dagmawi, and ANDREAS ESHETE. “AN INTERVIEW WITH ANDREAS ESHETE.” Callaloo, vol. 33, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010, pp. 102–16, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40732798new window

Adisa, Opal Palmer. “Up Close and Personal: Edwidge Danticat on Haitian Identity and the Writer's Life.” African American Review, vol. 43, no. 2/3, 2009, pp. 345–355. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41328611new window

Alexander, Simone A. James. “M/Othering the Nation: Women’s Bodies as Nationalist Trope in Edwidge Danticat’s ‘Breath, Eyes, Memory.’” African American Review, vol. 44, no. 3, [Indiana State University, Saint Louis University, African American Review, African American Review (St. Louis University)], 2011, pp. 373–90, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23316192new window

Alexander, Simone A. James. “Mapping Diasporic and Transnational Subjectivities: Edwidge Danticat’s Politics of Exile and Home/Comings.” Transnational Africana Women’s Fictions, edited by Cheryl Sterling, Routledge, 2021, pp. 32–49.

Augustin-Billy, Andia. “Ayiti Pa Lakay Ankò: Assotto Saint's Search for Home.” Journal of Haitian Studies, vol. 22, no. 1, 2016, pp. 82–105., www.jstor.org/stable/24894148new window

Bellamy, Maria Rice. “More than Hunter or Prey: Duality and Traumatic Memory in Edwidge Danticat’s ‘The Dew Breaker.’” MELUS, vol. 37, no. 1, [Oxford University Press, Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States (MELUS)], 2012, pp. 177–97, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41440718new window

Boisseron, Benedicte. Creole Renegades: Rhetoric of Betrayal and Guilt in the Caribbean Diaspora. Tallahassee, FL: University Press of Florida, 2014.

Braziel, Jana Evans and Nadege Clitandre, Eds.. The Bloomsbury Handbook to Edwidge Danticat. London, Bloomsbury Academic, 2021.

Braziel, Jana. Artists, Performers, and Black Masculinity in the Haitian Diaspora. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.

Chen, Wilson C. “Figures of Flight and Entrapment in Edwidge Danticat’s ‘Krik? Krak!’” Rocky Mountain Review, vol. 65, no. 1, Rocky Mountain Modern Language Association, 2011, pp. 36–55, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41289362new window

Clitandre, Nadege T. Edwidge Danticat: The Haitian Diasporic Imaginary. Charlottesville, University of Virginia Press, 2018.

Collins, Jo. "Between worlds: imagining dyaspora in Danticat's The Dew Breaker and Chancy's The Spirit of Haiti." ARIEL, vol. 42, no. 3-4, 2011, p. 121+. “Conversation with Edwidge Danticat: Haitian Literature Is a Living Art.”  Arts. 14 Jan. 14, 2011. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/arts/conversation-after-earthquake-haitian-literature-holds-strongnew window

“Conversation with Edwidge Danticat: Haitian Literature Is a Living Art.”  Artsnew window. 14 Jan. 
14, 2011. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/arts/conversation-after-earthquake-haitian-literature-holds-strongnew window

“The Dew Breaker.” PBS News Hour. 5 May 2004. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/the-dew-breakernew window

“Edwidge Danticat on the Struggle of Haitian Immigrants.” PBS Need To Know. 7 April 2011. https://www.pbs.org/video/need-to-know-edwidge-danticat-on-the-struggle-of-haitian-immigrants/new window

“Edwidge Danticat: 'Whether Or Not We Belong Is Not Defined By Us'.” National Public Radio. 30 August 2019. https://www.npr.org/2019/08/30/754393771/edwidge-danticat-whether-or-not-we-belong-is-not-defined-by-usnew window

Francis, Donette A. “‘Silences Too Horrific to Disturb’: Writing Sexual Histories in Edwidge Danticat’s ‘Breath, Eyes, Memory.’” Research in African Literatures, vol. 35, no. 2, Indiana University Press, 2004, pp. 75–90, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3821346new window

Glover, Kaiama L. “Must the Subaltern Speak: Edwidge Danticat, Feminism, and the Right to Silence.” The Scholar and Feminist Online, vol. 16, no. 1, 2019.

“An Interview with Edwidge Danticat.” Brooklyn Review. Fall 2018. http://www.bkreview.org/fall-2018/an-interview-with-edwidge-danticat/new window

Joseph, Celucien, Suchismita Banerjee, Marvin Hobson, and Danny Hoey. Approaches To Teaching the Works of Edwidge Danticat. New York, Routledge, 2020.

Lascelles, Amber. “Locating Black Feminist Resistance through Diaspora and Post-Diaspora in Edwidge Danticat’s and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Short Stories.” African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal, vol. 13, no. 2, 2020, pp. 227–240. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/17528631.2020.1750176.

Loichot, Valérie. “Edwidge Danticat's Kitchen History.” Meridians, vol. 5, no. 1, 2004, pp. 92–116.

Markel, Howard, and Alexandra Minna Stern. “The Foreignness of Germs: The Persistent Association of Immigrants and Disease in American Society.” The Milbank Quarterly, vol. 80, no. 4, 2002, pp. 757–788. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3350445new window

Mirabal, Nancy Raquel, and Edwidge Danticat. “Dyasporic Appetites and Longings: An Interview with Edwidge Danticat.” Callaloo, vol. 30, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007, pp. 26–39, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30135860new window

Montgomery, Maxine. Conversations with Edwidge Danticat. Oxford, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2018.

Morris, Bill. “Edwidge Danticat’s Small Moments of Joy.” Publishers Weekly, vol. 266, no. 41, Oct. 2019, p. (Sp)13.  https://themillions.com/2019/10/small-moments-of-joy-the-millions-interviews-edwidge-danticat.htmlnew window

Munro, Martin. Ed. Edwidge Danticat: A Reader’s Guide. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2010.

Philogene, Jerry. “Lenelle Moïse: Postscript, Swimming in the Waters of Endezo.” Contemporary French & Francophone Studies, vol. 19, no. 3, June 2015, pp. 335–345. https://doi.org/10.1080/17409292.2015.1028799new window

Pierce, Yolanda. “Restless Spirits: Syncretic Religion in Edwidge Danticat’s Breath, Eyes, Memory.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 3, no. 5, Jan. 2010, pp. 68–77.  http://www.jpanafrican.org/docs/vol3no5/3.5-6newRestless.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Raab, Josef. “Liberation and Lingering Trauma: U.S. Present and Haitian Past in Edwidge Danticat’s The Dew Breaker.” Politics and Cultures of Liberation: Media, Memory, and Projections of Democracy, edited by Hans Bak et al., vol. 7, Brill, LEIDEN; BOSTON, 2018, pp. 265–284. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1163/j.ctvbqs8h0.16new window

Rohrleitner, Marion Christina. “‘Breaking the Silence:’ Testimonio, Revisionary Historiography, and Survivor’s Guilt in Edwidge Danticat’s The Farming of Bones and The Dew Breaker.” Interdisciplinary Humanities, vol. 28, no. 1, Spring 2011, pp. 73–85.

Rossi, Jennifer C. “‘Let the Words Bring Wings to Our Feet:’ Negotiating Exile and Trauma through Narrative in Danticat’s ‘Breath, Eyes, Memory.’” Obsidian III, vol. 6/7, Board of Trustees of Illinois State University, 2005, pp. 203–20, http://www.jstor.org/stable/44511675new window

Samway, Patrick. “A Homeward Journey: Edwidge Danticat’s Fictional Landscapes, Mindscapes, Genescapes, and Signscapes in Breath, Eyes, Memory.” Mississippi Quarterly, vol. 57, no. 1, Winter 2003/2004 2003, pp. 75–84.

Smith, Robin L. "Danticat, Edwidge: Mama's Nightingale: A Story of Immigration and Separation." The Horn Book Guide, Spring 2016, p. 27.

Thompson, Mercedez L. “‘Here Comes the Dress’: Daily Resistance in Edwidge Danticat’s The Dew Breaker.” Gendered Violence and Human Rights in Black World Literature and Film, edited by Naomi Nkealah and Obioma Nnaemeka, Routledge, 2021, pp. 241–256.

Mardorossian, Carine M. “From Literature of Exile to Migrant Literature.” Modern Language Studies, vol. 32, no. 2, 2002, pp. 15–33.  JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3252040new window

Phillips, Caryl. “What Is Africa to Me Now?” Research in African Literatures, vol. 46, no. 4, 2015, pp. 10-14.  JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/reseafrilite.46.4.10new window

Philipson, Robert. “The Harlem Renaissance as Postcolonial Phenomenon.” African American Review, vol. 40, no. 1, 2006, pp. 145–160.  JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40027037new window

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. "Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: ‘Don’t We All Write about Love? When Men Do It, It’s a Political Comment. When Women Do It, It’s Just a Love Story’." Accessed 17 Jan. 2020. Originally published in The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 2014. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/mar/21/chimamanda-ngozi-adichie-interviewnew window

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. "Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: ‘My New Novel Is about Love, Race … and Hair’. "Contemporary Literary Criticism, edited by Jennifer Stock, Accessed 17 Jan. 2020. Originally published in The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 2013. https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2013/apr/07/chimamanda-ngozi-adichie-americanah-interviewnew window

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. "Love in the Time of Cornrows: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie on Her New Novel."  Accessed 17 Jan. 2020. Originally published in The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 2013. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/authorinterviews/9968921/Love-in-the-time-of-cornrows-Chimamanda-Ngozi-Adichie-on-her-new-novel.htmlnew window

Akingbe, Niyi, and Emmanuel Adeniyi. "Ghettoization of 'Other': Tinkering Transculturalism in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Americanah." Journal of Comparative Literature and Aesthetics, vol. 41-2, no. 1, 2018, p. 108+.. http://jcla.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/JCLA-2018-Vol.-41-Nos.-1-2-Niyi-Akingbe-Emmanuel-Adeniyi.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Bartosch, Roman. “The Energy of Stories: Postcolonialism, the Petroleum Unconscious, and the Crude Side of Cultural Ecology.” Resilience: A Journal of the Environmental Humanities, vol. 6, no. 2–3, 2019, pp. 116–135.  doi:10.5250/resilience.6.2-3.0116.

Camminga, B. “Disregard and Danger: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie and the Voices of Trans (and Cis) African Feminists.” Sociological Review, vol. 68, no. 4, July 2020, pp. 817–833.  doi:10.1177/0038026120934695.

Cruz-Gutiérrez, Cristina. “Hair Politics in the Blogosphere: Safe Spaces and the Politics of Self-Representation in Chimamanda Adichie’s Americanah.” Journal of Postcolonial Writing, vol. 55, no. 1, 2019, pp. 66–79.  doi:10.1080/17449855.2018.1462243.

Dalley, Hamish. “The Idea of ‘Third Generation Nigerian Literature’: Conceptualizing Historical Change and Territorial Affiliation in the Contemporary Nigerian Novel.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 44, no. 4, Indiana University Press, 2013, pp. 15–34, https://doi.org/10.2979/reseafrilite.44.4.15new window

Dimitriu, Ileana Şora. “Literary Representations of Home, Belonging and Unbelonging in Amamanda Adichie’s ‘Migrant Bildungsroman’, Americanah.” B. A. S.: British and American Studies/Revista de Studii Britanice Și Americane, vol. 27, 2021, pp. 271–281.

Duce, Violeta. “Adichie’s ‘The American Embassy’ and ‘Jumping Monkey Hill’: A Transmodern Response to Transmodernity.” Transmodern Perspectives on Contemporary Literatures in English, edited by Jessica Aliaga-Lavrijsen and José María Yebra-Pertusa, Routledge, 2019, pp. 218–232.

El Mekkawi, Lara. “The Hesitant Local : The Global Citizens of Open City and Americanah.” Afropolitan Literature as World Literature, edited by James Hodapp, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2020, pp. 203–218.

Emenyonu, Ernest, Ed. A Companion to Chimamanda Ngozie Adichie. Boston: James Currey, 2017.

Esplin, Marlene. “The Right Not to Translate: The Linguistic Stakes of Immigration in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Americanah.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 49, no. 2, Indiana University Press, 2018, pp. 73–86, https://doi.org/10.2979/reseafrilite.49.2.05new window

Hallemeier, Katherine. "'To be from the country of people who gave': National Allegory and the United States of Adichie's Americanah." Studies in the Novel, vol. 47, no. 2, 2015, p. 231-252. http://doi.org/10.1353/sdn.2015.0029new window

Hewett, Heather. “Coming of Age: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie and the Voice of the Third Generation.” English in Africa, vol. 32, no. 1, 2005, pp. 73–97. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40239030new window

Lombardi, Bernie. “Hetero-Trans-Nationalism and the Queer Diasporic Child: Figuring Dike as Horizon of Possibility in Adichie’s Americanah.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 51, no. 3, 2020, pp. 216–235.

Masterson, John. “Bye-Bye Barack: Dislocating Afropolitanism, Spectral Marxism and Dialectical Disillusionment in Two Obama-Era Novels.” African Identities, vol. 18, no. 1–2, 2020, pp. 18–40.  doi:10.1080/14725843.2020.1773236.

Nwanyanwu, Augustine Uka. “Transculturalism, Otherness, Exile, and Identity in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Americanah.” Matatu: Journal for African Culture & Society, vol. 49, no. 2, July 2017, pp. 386–399. https://doi.org/10.1163/18757421-04902008new window

Omotayo, Elizabeth Adesunmbo. “The Dynamic Interplay of the Global and Local Environments: A Study of Chimamanda Adichie’s Americanah.” International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, vol. 8, no. 1, 2019, pp. 19–27.  doi:10.18488/journal.23.2019.81.19.27.

Pahl, Miriam. “Afropolitanism as Critical Consciousness: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s and Teju Cole’s Internet Presence.” Journal of African Cultural Studies, vol. 28, no. 1, Mar. 2016, pp. 73–87. https://doi.org/10.1080/13696815.2015.1123143new window

Sousa, Sandra. "The Nigerian Diaspora in the United States and Afropolitanism in Sarah Ladipo Manyika's Like a Mule Bringing Ice Cream to the Sun." African Studies Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 2, 2019, p. 39-47. http://asq.africa.ufl.edu/files/v18i2a3.pdf

Stephen, Bernard Otonye. “Memory, Identity, and Change in Select Short Stories of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie.” Transnational Africana Women’s Fictions, edited by Cheryl Sterling, Routledge, 2021, pp. 85–100.

Taylor, Jack. “Language, Race, and Identity in Adichie’s Americanah and Bulowayo’s We Need New Names.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 50, no. 2, 2019, pp. 68–85.  doi:10.2979/reseafrilite.50.2.06.

Tunca, Daria. Conversations with Chimimanda Ngozie Adichie. Jackson, University of Mississippi Press, 2020.

Tunca, Daria, and Bénédicte Ledent. “The Power of a Singular Story: Narrating Africa and Its Diasporas.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 46, no. 4, Indiana University Press, 2015, pp. 1–9, https://doi.org/10.2979/reseafrilite.46.4.1new window

Tunca, Daria. "Of French Fries and Cookies: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Diasporic Short Fiction." Présence africaine en Europe et au-delà = African Presence in Europe and Beyond, edited by Kathleen Gyssels and Bénédicte Ledent, Harmattan, 2010, pp. 291-309. https://orbi.uliege.be/bitstream/2268/33339/1/Tunca_Adichie_African.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)


For discussion on film

“Director Messay Getahun Talks ‘Lambadina (Night Light)’ As a Different Kind of African Narrative.” ShadowandAct.com. Shadow and Act. 20 April 2017. https://shadowandact.com/montreal-international-black-film-festival-director-messay-getahun-talks-lambadina-night-light-as-a-different-kind-of-african-narrativenew window

Field, Allyson Nadia. “To Journey Imperfectly: Black Cinema Aesthetics and the Filmic Language of Sankofa.” Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media, vol. 55, no. 2, [Drake Stutesman, Wayne State University Press], 2014, pp. 171–90, https://doi.org/10.13110/framework.55.2.0171new window 

“Filmmaker Haile Gerima.” NPR.org. WAMU. 5 April 1994. https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1107587new window

Grayson, Sandra M. “‘SPIRITS OF ASONA ANCESTORS COME’: READING ASANTE SIGNS IN HAILE GERIMA’S ‘SANKOFA.’” CLA Journal, vol. 42, no. 2, College Language Association, 1998, pp. 212–27, http://www.jstor.org/stable/44323194new window

“Haile Gerima on the Role of Storytelling in His Work.” Arts.gov. National Endowment for the Arts. ND. 
https://www.arts.gov/stories/other/haile-gerima-role-storytelling-his-work#transcriptnew window

“Haile Gerima’s Black Radical Tradition On Screen: African Cinema of Liberation at Home and Abroad.” Black Camera, vol. 3, no. 1, Indiana University Press, 2011, pp. 7–8, https://doi.org/10.2979/blackcamera.3.1.7new window

“Interview: Haile Gerima on His Oeuvre, Concern for the Future of Black Indie Cinema + More.” ShadowAndAct.com. Shadow and Act. 20 April 2017. https://shadowandact.com/interview-haile-gerima-on-his-oeuvre-concern-for-the-future-of-black-indie-cinema-morenew window

Jackson, J. L. (2010). Decolonizing the Filmic Mind: An Interview with Haile Gerima. CALLALOO: A Journal of African Diaspora Arts and Letters, 33 (1), 25-36. https://yehaarts.com/upload/PDF/embodiment/Haile%20Gerima.pdf (PDF, Get Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader - Link opens in new window)

Jackson, John L., Jr. “A Conversation on Black Aesthetics.” YouTube.com. Blackstar Film Festival. 4 August 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Q6Je-QvS8s&feature=youtu.benew window

Kandé, Sylvie, and Joe Karaganis. “Look Homeward, Angel: Maroons and Mulattos in Haile Gerima’s ‘Sankofa.’” Research in African Literatures, vol. 29, no. 2, Indiana University Press, 1998, pp. 128–46, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3820726new window

“L.A. Rebellion: Haile Gerima.” CinemaUCLA.edu. UCLA Media and Film Archive. 2014. 
 https://www.cinema.ucla.edu/la-rebellion/haile-gerimanew window

Marbrey, Stacey. “Let’s Talk ‘Residue’.” Slamdance, 2020. https://slamdance.com/merawi-gerima-on-residue/new window

McKenna. Kristine. “‘Sankofa’: A Saga of Slavery Reaches the Big Screen: Movies: Haile Gerima Hit a Brick Wall When Trying to Finance His Story of a Black Woman, So He Did It Himself.” LATimes.com. Los Angeles Times. 29 May 1995. https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1995-05-29-ca-7370-story.htmlnew window

Saito, Steven. “Interview: Vivid Portrait on the Emotions That Never Fade Away.” Moveablefest.com, 17 Sept. 2020. http://moveablefest.com/merawi-gerima-residue/new window

Sankofa with Haile Gerima and Aboubacar Sanogo -TIFF Talks.” Youtube.com. 16 April 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aN0p-7EFkw8new window

Sandoval, Lapacazo.  “Ethiopian Filmmaker Salome Mulugeta’s Captivating Family Drama, 'WOVEN,' Is A Must-See.” Essence.com.  4 Jan. 2019. https://www.essence.com/entertainment/woven-salome-mulugeta-ethiopian-filmmaker/new window

Sandoval, Lapacazo. “A Year after the Los Angeles Film Festival, An Ethiopian Filmmaker’s Career Soars: A Year with Salome Mulugeta.” LASentinel.net. Los Angeles Sentinal. 1 June 2017. https://lasentinel.net/a-year-after-the-los-angeles-film-festival-an-ethiopian-filmmakers-career-soars.htmlnew window

Thomas, Greg. "Haile Gerima’s Black Radical Tradition On Screen: African Cinema of Liberation at Home and Abroad." Black Camera, vol. 3 no. 1, 2011, p. 7-8.

Thomas, Greg. “On Teza, Cinema, and American Empire: An Interview with Haile Gerima.” Black Camera, vol. 4, no. 2, 2013, pp. 84–104. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/blackcamera.4.2.84new window

Turner, Diane D., and Muata Kamdibe. “Haile Gerima: In Search of an Africana Cinema.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 38, no. 6, Sage Publications, Inc., 2008, pp. 968–91, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40035034new window

Vivarelli, Nick. “Director Merawi Gerima on ‘Residue’ as a Weapon in Battle for Black People’s Rights.” Variety, 12 Sept. 2020. https://variety.com/2020/film/news/merawi-gerima-on-residue-as-a-weapon-in-battle-for-black-peoples-rights-1234766535/new window

Woubshet, Dagmawi, and SALEM MEKURIA. “AN INTERVIEW WITH SALEM MEKURIA.” Callaloo, vol. 33, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010, pp. 314–17, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40732823new window 

Guetty Felin.” Haiti – Cultures. HaitiSplaPro. South Planet. 2020. http://haiti.spla.pro/en/file.person.guetty-felin.17710.htmlnew window

Patricia Benoit.” CaribbeanFilm.org. Caribbean Film Academy. 18 Jan. 2020. http://caribbeanfilm.org/patricia-benoit/new window

Adejunmobi, Moradewun. “Evolving Nollywood Templates for Minor Transnational Film.” Black Camera, vol. 5, no. 2, 2014, pp. 74–94. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/blackcamera.5.2.74new window

“Andrew Dosunmu.” LittleMinxTV. N.D. https://www.littleminx.tv/andrew-dosunmunew window

Cohn, Gabe. “He Won $1M To Make a Movie. Then the Problems Set In.” New York Times. 19 April 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/19/movies/tribeca-film-festival-winner-faraday-okoro.htmlnew window

Goffe, Leslie. “Nollywood Goes to America.” New African, no. 494, Apr. 2010, pp. 20–21.  https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Nollywood+goes+to+America%3a+Leslie+Goffe+reports+on+the+rise+of...-a0224534699new window

JONES, KRISTIN M. “Mother of George.” Film Comment, vol. 49, no. 5, Temporary Publisher, 2013, pp. 68–70, http://www.jstor.org/stable/43459771new window

Jones, Rendy. “An Objective Subjectivity: Julius Onah and J.C. Lee on Adapting Luce, Code-Switching and Frantz Fanon.” Filmmaker Magazine. 22 August 2019.  https://filmmakermagazine.com/107936-an-objective-subjectivity-julius-onah-and-j-c-lee-on-adapting-luce-code-switching-and-frantz-fanon/#.XiN68chKjD4new window

“Julius Onah.” Filmmakermagazine.com. ND. https://filmmakermagazine.com/people/julius-onah/#.XiN9NMhKjD4new window

Laffly, Tomris. “Sundance Interview 2019: Julius Onah on ‘Luce’.” RogerEbert.com. 28 Jan. 2019. https://www.rogerebert.com/sundance/sundance-2019-interview-julius-onah-on-lucenew window

Musa, Bala. Nollywood in Glocal Perspective. London: Palgrave McMillan, 2019.

Obensen, Tabay. “‘Luce’: How Will Smith and Barack Obama Inspired Questions About Black Masculinity in Provocative Film.” IndieWire. 2 August 2019. https://www.indiewire.com/2019/08/luce-julius-onah-interview-1202162706/new window

Obiaya, Ikechukwu. “A Break with the Past: The Nigerian Video-Film Industry in the Context of Colonial Filmmaking.” Film History, vol. 23, no. 2, Indiana University Press, 2011, pp. 129–46, https://doi.org/10.2979/filmhistory.23.2.129new window

Ramanthan, Guru. “The Million Dollar Story of Faraday Okoro.” Washington Square News. 22 Oct. 2018. https://nyunews.com/2018/10/22/nyu-mfa-alum-faraday-okoro-talks-to-wsn-about-debut-film-nigerian-prince/new window

“Untold Stories: Nigerian Prince.” AT&T. 2020. https://about.att.com/pages/nigerian_princenew window


For Ethiopian Panel

Ater, Renée. “Making History: Meta Warrick Fuller's ‘Ethiopia.’” American Art, vol. 17, no. 3, 2003, pp. 13–1. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1215807new window

Demissie, Fassil, Ed. Ethiopians in an Age of Migration: Scattered Lives Beyond Borders. Routledge, 2017.

Demessie, Menna. “Rethinking the American Dream: The Cost of Coming to America: Immigration and Depression in the Case of Sinedu Tadesse.” International Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 4, no. 1/2, 2009, pp. 85–104. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27828906new window

Farmer, Ashley D.. “Mothers of Pan-Africanism: Audley Moore and Dara Abubakari.” Women, Gender, and Families of Color, vol. 4, no. 2, University of Illinois Press, 2016, pp. 274–95, https://doi.org/10.5406/womgenfamcol.4.2.0274new window

Gebrekidan, Fikru Negash. “Ethiopia in Black Studies from W. E. B. Du Bois to Henry Louis Gates, Jr.” Northeast African Studies, vol. 15, no. 1, Michigan State University Press, 2015, pp. 1–34, https://doi.org/10.14321/nortafristud.15.1.0001new window

Getachew, Solomon Addis. The History of Ethiopian Immigrants and Refugees in America, 1900-2000. LFB Scholarly Publishing, 2006.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21674736.2018.1512809new window

Guenther, Katja M., et al. “The Impact of Intersecting Dimensions of Inequality and Identity on the Racial Status of Eastern African Immigrants.” Sociological Forum, vol. 26, no. 1, 2011, pp. 98–120. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23027283new window

Jalata, Asafa. “Comparing the African American And Oromo Movements in the Global Context.” Social Justice, vol. 30, no. 1 (91), 2003, pp. 67–111. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/29768167new window

Kobel, Paul S. "Ethiopian Americans." Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, edited by Thomas Riggs, 3rd ed., vol. 2, Gale, 2014, pp. 107-118.

Levine, Donald N. “Ethiopia's Nationhood Reconsidered.” Análise Social, vol. 46, no. 199, 2011, pp. 311–327. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41494856new window

Levine, Donald N. “Reconfiguring the Ethiopian Nation in a Global Era.” International Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 1, no. 2, 2004, pp. 1–15. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27828836new window

McVety, Amanda Kay. “The 1903 Skinner Mission: Images of Ethiopia in the Progressive Era.” The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, vol. 10, no. 2, Society for Historians of the Gilded Age & Progressive Era, 2011, pp. 187–212, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23045157new window

Metaferia, Getachew. Ethiopia and the United States: History, Diplomacy, and Analysis. NC, Algora, 2009.

Putnam, Aric. “Ethiopia Is Now: J. A. Rogers and the Rhetoric of Black Anticolonialism During the Great Depression.” Rhetoric and Public Affairs, vol. 10, no. 3, 2007, pp. 419–444. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41940154new window

Quirin, James. “W.E.B. Du Bois, Ethiopianism and Ethiopia, 1890-1955.” International Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 5, no. 2, 2010, pp. 1–26. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41757589new window 

Scott, William. “The Ethiopian Ethos in African American Thought.” International Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 1, no. 2, 2004, pp. 40–57. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27828838new window

White, Aaronette M. “Unpacking Black Feminist Pedagogy in Ethiopia.” Feminist Teacher, vol. 21, no. 3, University of Illinois Press, 2011, pp. 195–211, https://doi.org/10.5406/femteacher.21.3.0195new window

“The Ethiopian Diaspora in the United States.” Migration Policy Institute. July 2014.

Jalata, Asafa. “The Place of the Oromo Diaspora in the Oromo National Movement: Lessons from the Agency of the ‘Old’ African Diaspora in the United States.” Northeast African Studies, vol. 9, no. 3, 2002, pp. 133–160. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41931284new window

Terrazas, Aaron Matteo. “Beyond Regional Circularity: The Emergence of an Ethiopian Diaspora.” Migration Policy Institute. 1 June 2007. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/beyond-regional-circularity-emergence-ethiopian-diasporanew window

Chacko, Elizabeth. “Identity and Assimilation among Young Ethiopian Immigrants in Metropolitan Washington.” Geographical Review, vol. 93, no. 4, [American Geographical Society, Wiley], 2003, pp. 491–506, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30033939new window

Chernela, Janet, et al. “IDEOLOGIES OF HERITAGE: LANGUAGE, COMMUNITY, AND IDENTITY AMONG ETHIOPIAN IMMIGRANTS IN PRINCE GEORGE’S COUNTY, MARYLAND.” Practicing Anthropology, vol. 31, no. 3, Society for Applied Anthropology, 2009, pp. 15–19, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24781915new window

Girma, Hewan. “Black Names, Immigrant Names: Navigating Race and Ethnicity Through Personal Names.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 51, no. 1, Jan. 2020, pp. 16–36.

Habecker, Shelly. “Not Black, but Habasha: Ethiopian and Eritrean Immigrants in American Society.” Ethnic & Racial Studies, vol. 35, no. 7, July 2012, pp. 1200–1219. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2011.598232new window

Kai, Nubia. “JOURNEY TO MY ETHIOPEAN HOMELAND.” The Journal of African American History, vol. 98, no. 4, Association for the Study of African American Life and History, 2013, pp. 623–35, https://doi.org/10.5323/jafriamerhist.98.4.0623new window

Jalata, Asafa. “Being in and out of Africa: The Impact of Duality of Ethiopianism.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 40, no. 2, 2009, pp. 189–214 https://doi.org/10.1177/0021934707307833new window

Raleigh, Elizabeth. “The Color Line Exception: The Transracial Adoption of Foreign-Born and Biracial Black Children.” Women, Gender, and Families of Color, vol. 4, no. 1, University of Illinois Press, 2016, pp. 86–107, https://doi.org/10.5406/womgenfamcol.4.1.0086new window

Sexton, Jared. “People-of-Color-Blindness: Notes on the Afterlife of Slavery.” Social Text, vol. 28, no. 2_103, Summer 2010, pp. 31–56. https://doi.org/10.1215/01642472-2009-066new window

Wilson, Ivy. “‘ARE YOU MAN ENOUGH?’ Imagining Ethiopia and Transnational Black Masculinity.” Callaloo, vol. 33, no. 1, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010, pp. 265–77, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40732815new window

Yates, Brian J. “From White Males to Black Females: Understanding the National Bodies of Ethiopia (1896-1936).” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 44, no. 1, Sage Publications, Inc., 2013, pp. 81–100, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23414705new window

Languages and Literatures of the Major Ethnic Groups in the Ethiopian Community

These articles show that Ethiopia is not linguistically or ethnically monolithic and that there is a modern literary tradition in the languages (Afaan Oroma, Amharic, Tigrinya) of the three largest ethnic groups in Ethiopia.

Admassu, Yonas. “What Were They Writing About Anyway?: Tradition and Modernization in Amharic Literature.” Callaloo, volume 33, no. 1, 2010, pp. 64-81.

Ghirmai, Negash. “A History of Tigrinya Literature in Eritrea: The Oral and the Written 1890–1991.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 43, no. 1, 2012, pp. 58–64.

Tafa, Teferi Nigussie. “The representation of ‘Ethiopianness’ and ‘Oromoness’ in Two Oromo-language Novels: Yoomi Laataa by Isaayas Hordofaa and Kuusaa Gadoo by Gaaddisaa Birruu.” Journal of African Cultural Studies, vol. 27, no. 1, 2015, 2015, pp. 84–97.

Shelemay, Kay Kaufman. “Ethiopian Musical Invention in Diaspora: A Tale of Three Musicians.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, vol. 15, no. 2/3, Fall/Winter2006 2006, pp. 303–320.  DOI: 10.1353/dsp.2011.0067

Webster-Kogen, Ilana. “Engendering Homeland: Migration, Diaspora and Feminism in Ethiopian Music.” Journal of African Cultural Studies, vol. 25, no. 2, 2013, pp. 183–196. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/42005318new window

Heldman, Marilyn E. “Creating Sacred Space: Orthodox Churches of the Ethiopian American Diaspora.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, vol. 15, no. 2/3, Fall/Winter2006 2006, pp. 285–302. DOI: 10.1353/dsp.2011.0078

Lozano, Teresita D. “‘It's a Coptic Thing’: Music, Liturgy, and Religious Identity in an American Coptic Community.” The World of Music, vol. 4, no. 2, 2015, pp. 37–56. New Series, www.jstor.org/stable/43774593new window

Sellers, Allison Paige. “The ‘Black Man's Bible’: The Holy Piby, Garveyism, and Black Supremacy in the Interwar Years.” Journal of Africana Religions, vol. 3, no. 3, 2015, pp. 325–342. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.5325/jafrireli.3.3.0325new window

Related Streaming

No Passport: Washington, DC. Dir. Anna Chai. Vox Media, PBS, 2018.

 


Principles of Civility for NEH Professional Development Programs

NEH Seminars, Institutes, and Landmarks programs are intended to extend and deepen knowledge and understanding of the humanities by focusing on significant topics, texts, and issues; contribute to the intellectual vitality and professional development of participants; and foster a community of inquiry that provides models of excellence in scholarship and teaching. NEH expects that project directors will take responsibility for encouraging an ethos of openness and respect, upholding the basic norms of civil discourse.

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Seminar, Institute, and Landmarks presentations and discussions should be:

  • firmly grounded in rigorous scholarship, and thoughtful analysis;
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NEH welcomes comments, concerns, or suggestions on these principles at questions@neh.gov.